Dr. Jennifer Koeman - Swine Industry Efforts to Address Influenza
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Swine Industry Efforts to Address Influenza - Dr. Jennifer Koeman, Director, Producer & Public Health, National Pork Board, from the 2013 NIAA Merging Values and Technology conference, April 15-17, ...

Swine Industry Efforts to Address Influenza - Dr. Jennifer Koeman, Director, Producer & Public Health, National Pork Board, from the 2013 NIAA Merging Values and Technology conference, April 15-17, 2013, Louisville, KY, USA.

More presentations at http://www.trufflemedia.com/agmedia/conference/2013-niaa-merging-values-and-technology

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  • The stated objective of the swine influenza surveillance program are three fold: Monitor the evolution of endemic influenza in swine to better understand endemic and emerging virus ecology Make available isolates for research and establish an objective database for genetic analysis Select proper isolates for the development of relevant diagnostic reagents, updating diagnostic assays and vaccine seed stock products
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  • From Tavis: The number of H3N2 submissions appears to be decreasing; the pandemic matrix is slowly but surely increasing in all of the circulating subtypes; H3N2v is a distinct clade on the phylogeny, and antigenic work is suggesting meaningful differences between the different H3N2 clades (despite a common matrix gene); there appear to be at least 4 clades in the H3N2 phylogeny (the H3N2v clade and 3 others) that are demonstrating onward transmission.
  • From January to September 2012, 307 cases of H3N2v infection across 11 states were detected. When an influenza virus that normally circulates in swine (but not people) is detected in a person, it is called a “variant influenza virus.” “ Variant” designates the virus as one that varies from infecting only the species that is its usual host. For example, if a “swine-origin” influenza A H3N2 virus is detected in a person, that virus will be called an “H3N2 variant” virus or “H3N2v”
  • From July to September 2012, 307 cases of H3N2v infection across 11 states were detected. When an influenza virus that normally circulates in swine (but not people) is detected in a person, it is called a “variant influenza virus.” “ Variant” designates the virus as one that varies from infecting only the species that is its usual host. For example, if a “swine-origin” influenza A H3N2 virus is detected in a person, that virus will be called an “H3N2 variant” virus or “H3N2v”
  • Have not recently analyzed the H3N2 isolates for their Matrix origin (N. American versus pandemic).  So I can’t tell you exactly how many “similar” viruses have been identified more recently.
  • Meeting of Influenza Working Group for Fairs and Exhibitions to outline key measure to maintaining pig/herd health

Dr. Jennifer Koeman - Swine Industry Efforts to Address Influenza Presentation Transcript

  • 1. National Pork Board Perspective& Response to InfluenzaJennifer Koeman, DVM, MPH, DACVPMDir. Producer and Public Health
  • 2. Activities and Focus on Swine InfluenzaPrior to Summer 2012
  • 3. Influenza Activities Prior to 2012• Prior to 2009, collaborative work was ongoingwith CDC, AASV, USDA and NPB to develop a pilotfor swine influenza surveillance– No public, coordinated plan existed at that time• The identification of the influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 virus accelerated that surveillanceprogram implementation
  • 4. Swine Influenza Surveillance Plan• Voluntary Program / Anonymous• Objectives– Monitor genetic evolution and ecology– Provide isolates for research activities– Provide isolates for progressive development of• Diagnostic reagents• Diagnostic assays• Vaccines
  • 5. Animal and Human Health Objectives• Public health link– Further research– Sensitize the human health surveillance network inthe state– Collaborate with animal health to ensure coordinatedrisk communication – when necessary
  • 6. How Does the Plan Work?• Surveillance streams– Case compatible accessions to diagnostic laboratories– First point of contact or commingling events– Swine linked to a human case of SIV
  • 7. How Are Results Reported?• Results are reported into the USDA Surveillanceunit by NAHLN laboratories as anonymous dataor traceable data• An isolate of the virus is placed in the NVSLrepository• Selected virus isolates are sequenced andentered in GenBank• Public health/research/industry/others canmonitor GenBank for sequences of interest
  • 8. Influenza Surveillance Program Data• Thirty-seven NAHLN Laboratories are testingswine samples for SIV surveillance• For FY2011 and 2012, more than 4,400accessions have been tested
  • 9. Surveillance DataSlide courtesy of John Korslund, USDA
  • 10. Surveillance DataSlide courtesy of Dave Pyburn, USDA
  • 11. Surveillance DataSlide courtesy of John Korslund, USDA
  • 12. Pork Industry Outreach• Brochure and newsletter sent toall 66,000 producers as of Nov. 1,2010• Sent to all state veterinarians andpublic health counterparts• Also available on www.pork.org• Coincided with increase inaccession submissions inNovember 2010
  • 13. Swine Veterinary Community Outreach• Brochure sentto 1,350 U.S.AASV membersand students
  • 14. Current and Future Focus on Influenza
  • 15. Influenza A (H3N2) Variant Virus
  • 16. When Did This Start?• Human infections:– Between August and December 2011, 12 U.S.residents were found to be infected with H3N2v– In April 2012, a case of H3N2v was detected in a child
  • 17. When Did This Start?• Human infections:– From July to September2012, 307 cases ofH3N2v infection across11 states were detected– These human infectionswere mostly associatedwith exhibitors thatwere in close contactwith pigs at agriculturalfairs
  • 18. When Did This Start?• Pigs:– The USDA, in cooperation with states and industry,conducts voluntary surveillance for swine influenzavirus in the US– The agency first identified this unique strain of H3N2virus in samples collected from swine in late 2010.– From October 1, 2011 to July 31, 2012, 57 casestested to date were positive for this strain of H3N2
  • 19. What Did This Mean?• Increased level of attention by publichealth officials– Possible that this virus was more transmissible frompigs to humans than other swine influenza viruses– Because influenza viruses are always changing it ispossible that the H3N2v could change and begin tospread more easily from person to person– Studies conducted by CDC indicated that childrenyounger than 10 years old have little to noimmunity against H3N2v virusCenters for Disease Control and Prevention
  • 20. National Pork Board Response• 2012 experience different than 2009• Show pig population is inherently different fromcommercial production• Risk factors are different but control efforts canbe applied universally
  • 21. National Pork Board Response• Re-activated the Crisis Management Team– Initially set up in 2009 for dealing with H1N1– Internal to NPB– Prioritize tasks for response
  • 22. NPB Activities and Resources• Worked closely with other stakeholders and partners oninformation needs and messaging– USDA– CDC– AASV– State pork associations– State vets/boards of animal health– State public health departments– Extension educators– Company communicators– International partners/USMEF
  • 23. NPB Activities and Resources• Talking points to state pork associations,company communicators, extension, fairs, etc.• “Influenza Resources” at www.pork.org/flu
  • 24. Understanding Influenza Naming• November 2011 – NPB, NPPC and AASV met withCDC to discuss influenza terminology• December 2011 – International health agencies(WHO, FAO and OIE) met to discuss influenzaterminology• January 2012 – International and national (CDC)health agencies announced a new virus namingconvention
  • 25. Background: 2012 Flu Season– November – NPB, NPPC and AASV met with CDC todiscuss influenza terminology– December 2011 – International health agencies(WHO, FAO and OIE) met to discuss influenzaterminology– January 2012 – International and national (CDC)health agencies announced a new virus namingconvention
  • 26. NPB Activities and Resources• Exhibitors currently have available a “AChampions Guide to Youth Swine Exhibition:Biosecurity and Your Pig Project”– Outlines key measure to maintainingpig/herd health
  • 27. NPB Activities and Resources• Meeting of Influenza Working Group for Fairs andExhibitions, Oct 9, 2012Objective:–Identification of potential risk factors for and measuresto mitigate interspecies transfer of influenza virus forcommercial swine production and swineexhibitions/fairs–Identification of influenza risk managementrecommendations for consideration for commercialswine production and swine exhibitions/fairs
  • 28. NPB Activities and Resources• Participated in the Swine Exhibitions ZoonoticInfluenza Working Group that has developed aset of measures to minimize influenza virustransmission between swine, from people toswine, and from swine to people at swineexhibitions
  • 29. Committee Activities• Producer/ Public Health and Workplace SafetyResearch - Tactics for 2013– Interspecies transfer– Current/new interventions– Epidemiology of influenza virus in showpigs/exhibitors• Managing emerging zoonotic diseases and publichealth challenges
  • 30. In Summary…• Influenza is a common disease of swine withhuman health impact• Producers want to protect both animal andpublic health• Producer support continued research forinfluenza: animal and human applications
  • 31. In Summary…• There is a continued focus on improving swinehealth and monitoring for influenza• Surveillance can benefit both animal and humanhealth• Continued engagement with key stakeholders inall aspects of production and health
  • 32. This message funded by America’s Pork Checkoff Program.Thank you