Dr. Jeff Ondrak - Trichomoniasis Overview – The Disease, History, & Management
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Trichomoniasis Overview – The Disease, History, & Management - Dr. Jeff Ondrak, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, from the 2014 NIAA Annual Conference titled 'The Precautionary Principle: How ...

Trichomoniasis Overview – The Disease, History, & Management - Dr. Jeff Ondrak, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, from the 2014 NIAA Annual Conference titled 'The Precautionary Principle: How Agriculture Will Thrive', March 31 - April 2, 2014, Omaha, NE, USA.

More presentations at http://www.trufflemedia.com/agmedia/conference/2014_niaa_how_animal_agriculture_will_thrive

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  • Highly contagious - 80-90% of females infected from breeding to infected bull (95% for virgin heifers)
  • NE herd: 68/150 head open (45%)
  • Hierarchy in the bull battery could determine who does the breeding. For example VanEenennaam et. al. (J Anim Sci. 85:3159-3169, 2007) found through DNA testing of calves that 5 of 27 bulls produced >50% of the calves and 10 bulls produced no calves. <br /> Different from Rae et. al. 1999 JAVMA, 214:1051-1055 <br /> Depends on why they are sampling. For surveillence with preg data may focus on high % open groups. In infected herds test everyone. <br />
  • Herd A bulls

Dr. Jeff Ondrak - Trichomoniasis Overview – The Disease, History, & Management Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Trichomoniasis Overview: The Disease, History, & Management Jeff D. Ondrak DVM, MS Great Plains Veterinary Educational Center jondrak@gpvec.unl.edu
  • 2. Tritrichomonas foetus • Tri = 3; trich = hair • Highly contagious venereal disease • Obligate parasite of the bovine reproductive tract
  • 3. History • 1888 France • 1920’s World-wide • 1932 Pennsylvania dairy cows • 1958 Western U.S. beef herds
  • 4. Courtesy of VectorTemplates.com
  • 5. T. foetus in Females Disease Process • Infection leads to inflammation, but does not interfere with conception • Early embryonic death and abortion at 50 – 80 days • Immune response clears infection • Infertility for 2-5 months => normal fertility • Unusual outcomes Clinical Signs • Mild discharge • Return to estrus • Extended calving season • ≥ 40% reduction in % pregnant cows
  • 6. Carrier Cows • No apparent carrier cows Barling et. al. Bov Pract 2005 • Post calving – 63-97 days Goodger et. al. JAVMA 1986 – 9 weeks Skirrow JAVMA 1987 • Post breeding – 22 months Alexander Aust Vet J 1953 – 300 days Mancebo et. al. Vet Parasitol 1995
  • 7. T. foetus in Males Disease Process • No tissue invasion • No detectable immune response • Preputial crypts aid in parasite survival • Chronic carriers in bulls > 3 years of age Clinical Signs • None (Courtesy of Dr. Bruce Brodersen, University of Nebraska- Lincoln Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory) Treatment • Test and slaughter!
  • 8. Testing Errors • Pre-analytical Phase – Error sources include wrong sample, mishandled sample, improper sample collection, etc. • Analytical Phase (the equipment/technician) – Error sources include mechanical wear and tear, bad sensors, inherent errors, software errors, and improper cutoff values. • Post-analytical Phase – Reporting errors include misread or misreported values, transposition of figures, etc. Reports from our human counterparts indicate up to 90% of diagnostic test error occurs in the pre and post analytical phase of testing. While less than 10-13% of the error occurs during the analytical phase.
  • 9. Trich and the Bad “B” Word
  • 10. Herd Health Assurance: At-risk Herds • Communication • Veterinarian  producer • Producer  producer • Planned grazing • Appropriate fencing • Maintain a closed herd • Monitor fences and cattle • Observe regulations • Purchase only virgin or pregnant replacements • Isolate and test herd additions • Isolate and test herd reintroductions • Utilize artificial insemination • Records
  • 11. b 12.2% open in the exposed group a 8.9% open in the exposed group 2004 4.8% 2005 5.4% 2006 13.9% 2007 27.0%Herd A (1500 cows) 4.1% 3.8% 4.2%a 4.2%bHerd B (3000 cows) Herd C (3000 cows) Historically ~7% 2008 14% Group % Open 1 2 3 4 5 9% 8% 15% 14% 19%
  • 12. y = 0.264x + 8.992 R² = 0.974 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 10 20 30 40 50 Percentnon-pregnantcows Percent T. foetus infected bulls
  • 13. Herd Health Assurance: At-risk Herds • Communication • Veterinarian  producer • Producer  producer • Planned grazing • Appropriate fencing • Maintain a closed herd • Monitor fences and cattle • Observe regulations • Purchase only virgin or pregnant replacements • Isolate and test herd additions • Isolate and test herd reintroductions • Utilize artificial insemination • Surveillance testing • Records
  • 14. Herd Health Assurance: Low Risk Herds • Communication • Veterinarian  producer • Producer  producer • Maintain a closed herd • Monitor fences and cattle • Observe regulations • Purchase only virgin or pregnant replacements or purchase from a reputable source • Isolate and test herd reintroductions? • Utilize artificial insemination • Records • Surveillance testing?????
  • 15. Herd Health Assurance: Infected Herds • Test and cull • Bull management • Communication • Veterinarian  producer • Producer  producer
  • 16. Comparison of First Test Efficiency 1st Culture 8 2nd 2 3rd 1 Total 11 First Test Efficiency .73 95% CI .39-.94 q PCR 9 3 0 12 .75 .43-.95 Gel PCR 8 4 1 13 .62 .32-.86
  • 17. Herd Health Assurance: Infected Herds • Utilize artificial insemination • Maintain a young bull battery • Test and cull • Establish “clean” and “dirty” herds • Surveillance testing • Cull all non-productive cows • Bull management • Cow management • Cull • Communication • Veterinarian  producer • Producer  producer • Records
  • 18. “…it is my opinion that if more care was taken in the sale and purchase of barren cows, in the purchase of bulls of breeding age, and if the farmers could be sufficiently educated to the unique opportunities for control that this disease offers, then its total elimination should be practicable in the quite near future.” H.P. Harding The Veterinary Record September 16, 1950
  • 19. Questions?