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Strategies to Improve Swine       Reproduction         Jason W. Ross      Iowa State University
NCERA57North Central Extension Research Activity-57• Workshop on Emerging AI Technologies (May 2012)  – Ron Ketchum-Swine ...
Swine industry changes…~90% natural mating in 1990   >90% AI in 2010
SMS Data Set- Total Born         2005     2006     2007    2008     2009     2010    2011     Diff10%      12.41    12.67 ...
SMS Data Set- Farrowing Rate         2005     2006     2007     2008     2009     2010     2011   Diff 10%     85.9%   86....
SMS Data Set- Wean to Estrus Interval        2005    2006     2007     2008    2009     2010     2011   Diff10%      NA   ...
2011 Industry StatsSMS Performance data                                                       Bottom     52 weeks average-...
2011 Industry StatsSMS Performance data                                                       Bottom     52 weeks average-...
TOPIGS Research Center IPG“How low can you go?”Hanneke Feitsma, manager R&D
Check                                    Reducing Sperm Numbers                                   4.0                     ...
Current TOPIGS Production ParametersAGROVISION DATA 2011 AVERAGE 20% BEST                                                 ...
TOPIGS Road Map to Low DoseInsemination        Sperm Quality Index:      Semen parameters which affect fertility          ...
Semen related factors affectingfertility                    Direct boar effect         (4-8%)  -   boar                   ...
Post-cervical Artificial Insemination              -Slide courtesy of Dr. Howard Hill, Iowa Select
The tip of the                                                 catheter                                                 is...
Slide courtesy of Dr. Howard Hill, Iowa Select
Slide courtesy of Dr. Howard Hill, Iowa Select
Slide courtesy of Dr. Howard Hill, Iowa Select
Iowa Select Farms PCAI ResultsSupervisor X17 Sow Farm Pod- KPI        2010 (Pre PCAI)         2011 (Post PCAI)Farrow Rate ...
Timed Insemination-OvuGelTM• OvuGelTM – Intravaginally administered GnRH agonist – Facilitates ovulation synchronization b...
Future of AI Technologies  Reproductive Technology Stacking• Long Term Opportunities:  – Single, low-dose, post-cervical, ...
Take Home Message on AI Technologies• Reasons for implementing?  – Unlikely to improve on good FR, TNB, and NBA  – You can...
Identification of measurespredictive of age at first puberty    Kody L. Graves, Bethany Mordhorst,     Nicole Oldfather, E...
What is the importance of age of first               puberty?• Impacts the profitability of a swine enterprise.• Gilts tha...
Age of Puberty Impacts Fallout                  Patterson et al., 2010 J. Anim Science
Variation in Prepubertal Follicular           Development                  Day 98 ± 4 days   N = 21                       ...
Hypothesis• Gilts that demonstrate follicular activity earliest  will achieve puberty earliest. Additionally, these  gilts...
Objectives• To identify a specific time when a cohort of gilts  demonstrate variability with regard to follicular  develop...
Experimental Design• 155 Gilts ± 2 days of age• On Days 75, 85, 95, 105, 115 of age:  – Body weight  – Measure vulva width...
Experimental Design• Remaining 105 Gilts  – Heat checked daily  – Beginning at 129 days of age  – Ending at 200 days of ag...
Body weight gain during prepubertal                        gilt development                   90                   80     ...
Change in vulva length during                    prepubertal development              45              40              35  ...
Change in vulva width during                    prepubertal development              40              35              30Mil...
Change in vulva area during                       prepubertal development               1400               1200           ...
Prepubertal Follicle Development            12                      No Follicle develoment            10                  ...
Uterine Weight of Gilts Sacrificed                              during Prepubertal Development                         80U...
Distribution of Age of First Estrus            30            25            20Frequency            15            10        ...
Body weight association with ability to              achieve puberty by 200 days        χ2 = .75    .57   .61     .78     ...
Body weight at Day 75 is correlated to                                   age at first estrus                          55  ...
Relationship between body weight on days   75 and 115 and age of puberty onset              90%       85%              80%...
Vulva Length association with puberty                  by 200 days              χ2 = .97       .93         .10       .69  ...
Vulva Width association with puberty                 by 200 days         χ2 = .56           .74          .07    .24       ...
Correlation between Vulva Width at                              Day 105 to age at first estrus                           4...
Correlation between Vulva Width at                              Day 115 to age at first estrus                           4...
Vulva Area association with puberty by           180 days of age      < 1 St. Dev. Of Mean      Within or > 1 St. Dev of M...
Retrospective Analysis                               90                                               Cyclic by day 160   ...
Summary and Implications• These data demonstrate an association between vulva  development on day 95 and ability to achiev...
Questions?Dr. Hanneke Feitsma Talk:https://connect.extension.iastate.edu/p78w1zjzjm9/Jason Ross Contact: jwross@iastate.edu
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Dr. Jason Ross - Strategies to Improve Swine Reproduction

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Strategies to Improve Swine Reproduction - Dr. Jason Ross, Iowa State University, from the 2013 Iowa Pork Congress, January 23-24, Des Moines, IA, USA.

More presentations at http://www.swinecast.com/2013-iowa-pork-congress

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  1. 1. Strategies to Improve Swine Reproduction Jason W. Ross Iowa State University
  2. 2. NCERA57North Central Extension Research Activity-57• Workshop on Emerging AI Technologies (May 2012) – Ron Ketchum-Swine Management Services • Economics of AI – Dr. Brad Didion-Minitube • Utilization of frozen semen – Dr. Hanneke Feitsma-TOPIGS • Reducing sperm numbers per dose – Dr. Howard Hill-Iowa Select • Utilization and implementation of post cervical AI (PCAI)
  3. 3. Swine industry changes…~90% natural mating in 1990 >90% AI in 2010
  4. 4. SMS Data Set- Total Born 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Diff10% 12.41 12.67 13.04 13.28 13.60 13.82 14.18 +1.77All 11.70 11.93 12.18 12.41 12.65 12.88 13.20 +1.50Based on Swine Management Services data, Courtesy of Ron Ketchum
  5. 5. SMS Data Set- Farrowing Rate 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Diff 10% 85.9% 86.9% 88.0% 87.9% 88.4% 88.5% 90.2% +4.3 All 79.7% 81.1% 82.5% 82.5% 83.0% 84.0% 84.9% +5.2Based on Swine Management Services data, Courtesy of Ron Ketchum
  6. 6. SMS Data Set- Wean to Estrus Interval 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Diff10% NA 6.01 5.97 6.08 6.31 6.34 6.09 -0.08All NA 6.93 7.01 6.97 7.09 7.06 6.99 -0.06Based on Swine Management Services data, Courtesy of Ron Ketchum
  7. 7. 2011 Industry StatsSMS Performance data Bottom 52 weeks average-2011 summary Top 10% Top 25% All Farms 25%Total pigs born / female farrowed 14.47 14.13 13.27 12.40Pigs born live / female farrowed 13.23 12.89 12.01 11.04Pigs weaned / female farrowed 11.86 11.28 10.47 9.57Piglet survival 83.5% 81.6% 80.0% 78.0%Pigs weaned / mf / yr 29.37 27.89 24.62 20.86Litters / mated female / year 2.47 2.46 2.37 2.23Wean to 1st service interval 5.75 6.08 6.81 7.92Percent served by day 7 88.6% 89.3% 86.3% 81.1%Percent repeat services 3.9% 5.4% 8.2% 12.3%Farrowing rate 90.8% 88.9% 85.2% 79.8% Based on Swine Management Services data, Courtesy of Ron Ketchum
  8. 8. 2011 Industry StatsSMS Performance data Bottom 52 weeks average-2011 summary Top 10% Top 25% All Farms 25%Total pigs born / female farrowed 14.47 14.13 13.27 12.40Pigs born live / female farrowed 13.23 12.89 12.01 11.04Pigs weaned / female farrowed 11.86 11.28 10.47 9.57Piglet survival 83.5% 81.6% 80.0% 78.0%Pigs weaned / mf / yr 29.37 27.89 24.62 20.86Litters / mated female / year 2.47 2.46 2.37 2.23Wean to 1st service interval 5.75 6.08 6.81 7.92Percent served by day 7 88.6% 89.3% 86.3% 81.1%Percent repeat services 3.9% 5.4% 8.2% 12.3%Farrowing rate 90.8% 88.9% 85.2% 79.8% Based on Swine Management Services data, Courtesy of Ron Ketchum
  9. 9. TOPIGS Research Center IPG“How low can you go?”Hanneke Feitsma, manager R&D
  10. 10. Check Reducing Sperm Numbers 4.0 30No. motile sperm/dose (billions) 3.5 28 Weaned piglets/sow/year 26 3.0 24 2.5 22 2.0 20 1.5 18 16 1.0 14 0.5 12 0.0 10 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Year Courtesy- Dr. Hanneke Feitsma, R&D Manager, TOPIGS Research Center
  11. 11. Current TOPIGS Production ParametersAGROVISION DATA 2011 AVERAGE 20% BEST DUTCH STANDARD FOR AI:No. farms 739 142No. sows 402 445 • Fresh semenFarm farrowing index 2,38 2,44 • 1.5 B motile cellsSow farrowing index 2,45 2,48 • Intra cervical insemination% repeats 8 6 • Shelf life 96 hours% double 61 68Average parity 4,1 4 • Courier conditioned transport% st parity sows 17 17 (17°C)Weaning to 1st ins. interval 5,6 5,5Farrowing rate 87 90Farrowing rate (1st ins.) 88 91LNB 13,6 14,2Still/dead born 1,1 1Piglet mortality 12,8 11,2Weaned piglets/litter 11,8 12,6Weaned piglets/sow/year 28,1 30,8 Dr. Hanneke Feitsma, R&D Manager, TOPIGS Research Center
  12. 12. TOPIGS Road Map to Low DoseInsemination Sperm Quality Index: Semen parameters which affect fertility performance + Weighing factorCourtesy- Dr. Hanneke Feitsma, R&D Manager, TOPIGS Research Center
  13. 13. Semen related factors affectingfertility Direct boar effect (4-8%) - boar - acrosome responsiveness - boar line - DNA integrity - boar age - mitochondrial activity - ejaculation interval - chromatine structure - semen collector - bacterial contamination - year / month - no. Cells per dose - AI station - semen storage AI - lab technician - transport temperature - motility - transport distance - morphology - movement during transport - longevity - semen storage at farm - membrane integrity - semen age at insemination - acrosome intacntness - insemination techniquehttps://connect.extension.iastate.edu/p78w1zjzjm9/Courtesy- Dr. Hanneke Feitsma, R&D Manager, TOPIGS Research Center
  14. 14. Post-cervical Artificial Insemination -Slide courtesy of Dr. Howard Hill, Iowa Select
  15. 15. The tip of the catheter is closed to guarantee the sterility of the cannula until its introduction through the cervix.Slide courtesy of Dr. Howard Hill, Iowa Select
  16. 16. Slide courtesy of Dr. Howard Hill, Iowa Select
  17. 17. Slide courtesy of Dr. Howard Hill, Iowa Select
  18. 18. Slide courtesy of Dr. Howard Hill, Iowa Select
  19. 19. Iowa Select Farms PCAI ResultsSupervisor X17 Sow Farm Pod- KPI 2010 (Pre PCAI) 2011 (Post PCAI)Farrow Rate 85.7% 87.4%TB 13.1 13.4BA 11.9 12.2Wean Avg 10.1 10.5PSY 23.4 24.7 First 19 weeks of 2011 First 19 weeks of 2012Sow 25 - KPI (Pre PCAI) (Post PCAI)Farrow Rate 89.1 93.1TB 13.1 13.4BA 12.0 12.5Wean Avg 10.7 10.9PSY 24.8 27.9 Slide courtesy of Dr. Howard Hill, Iowa Select
  20. 20. Timed Insemination-OvuGelTM• OvuGelTM – Intravaginally administered GnRH agonist – Facilitates ovulation synchronization by controlling luteinizing hormone surge release. – Results: • Timed insemination pregnancy rates equivalent to heat detection and insemination.
  21. 21. Future of AI Technologies Reproductive Technology Stacking• Long Term Opportunities: – Single, low-dose, post-cervical, timed insemination.• Opportunities in Efficiency – Labor savings in sow barn and boar studs – Fewer boars • Big value in genetic improvement • Making the swine industry more flexible and rapid in the ability to disseminate specific genetic traits• Future Challenges – AI Technologies to mitigate seasonal infertility?
  22. 22. Take Home Message on AI Technologies• Reasons for implementing? – Unlikely to improve on good FR, TNB, and NBA – You can decrease costs (Boar costs and Labor)• Savings in labor can be invested in areas where improvements are feasible – Weaned pigs percentage (day 1-2 piglet care)• Implementation – Implement incrementally – Make decisions and adjustments based on data and performance
  23. 23. Identification of measurespredictive of age at first puberty Kody L. Graves, Bethany Mordhorst, Nicole Oldfather, Elane C. Wright, Benjamin Hale, Aileen F. Keating, Ken Stalder, Jason W. Ross
  24. 24. What is the importance of age of first puberty?• Impacts the profitability of a swine enterprise.• Gilts that demonstrate puberty early have less non- productive days than those that demonstrate first estrus late.• Age at first puberty is an indicators of lifetime productivity.• Lifetime productivity lacks heritability and can be influenced by environment.
  25. 25. Age of Puberty Impacts Fallout Patterson et al., 2010 J. Anim Science
  26. 26. Variation in Prepubertal Follicular Development Day 98 ± 4 days N = 21 N = 27 Ross, Keating and Baumgard, unpublished.
  27. 27. Hypothesis• Gilts that demonstrate follicular activity earliest will achieve puberty earliest. Additionally, these gilts will be phenotypically distinct in at least one physiological parameter.
  28. 28. Objectives• To identify a specific time when a cohort of gilts demonstrate variability with regard to follicular development.• To determine the feasibility measuring parameters related to follicular development during prepubertal development. – Vulva development – Serum estradiol – Body weight• To determine if those factors have a relationship with age of puberty.
  29. 29. Experimental Design• 155 Gilts ± 2 days of age• On Days 75, 85, 95, 105, 115 of age: – Body weight – Measure vulva width, vulva length – Blood draw – Sacrificed 10 gilts • Recorded follicular development • Uterine weight
  30. 30. Experimental Design• Remaining 105 Gilts – Heat checked daily – Beginning at 129 days of age – Ending at 200 days of age• Determine association between phenotypes on days 75, 85, 95, 105, and 115 and age of first estrus.
  31. 31. Body weight gain during prepubertal gilt development 90 80 70Body Weight (Kg) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 75 85 95 105 115 Day of Age
  32. 32. Change in vulva length during prepubertal development 45 40 35 30Millimeters 25 20 15 10 5 0 75 85 95 105 115 Day of Age
  33. 33. Change in vulva width during prepubertal development 40 35 30Millimeters 25 20 15 10 5 0 75 85 95 105 115 Day of Age
  34. 34. Change in vulva area during prepubertal development 1400 1200 1000Millimeters2 800 600 400 200 0 75 85 95 105 115 Day of Age
  35. 35. Prepubertal Follicle Development 12 No Follicle develoment 10 < 10 small folliclesFrequency 8 10->100 small follicles 6 4 2 0 75 85 95 105 115 Day of Age
  36. 36. Uterine Weight of Gilts Sacrificed during Prepubertal Development 80Uterine Weight (grams) d 70 Day Effect P < 0.001 60 d 50 40 c 30 bc 20 ab 10 0 75 85 95 105 115 Day of Age
  37. 37. Distribution of Age of First Estrus 30 25 20Frequency 15 10 5 0 Day of Age
  38. 38. Body weight association with ability to achieve puberty by 200 days χ2 = .75 .57 .61 .78 .65 90 80 70 Estrus 60 No EstrusKilograms 50 40 30 20 10 0 75 85 95 105 115 Day of Age
  39. 39. Body weight at Day 75 is correlated to age at first estrus 55 r = -0.217 50Day 75 body weight (Kg) P =0.055 45 40 35 30 25 135 155 175 195 Age of First Estrus
  40. 40. Relationship between body weight on days 75 and 115 and age of puberty onset 90% 85% 80% 77% 77% 77% 72% 73% 180 69% 69% 70% Percentage 60% 200 60% 60% 54% 50% 46% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Top Quartile Two Quartiles Middle Bottom Quartile Top Quartile Two Quartiles Middle Bottom Quartile r = -0.217 r = -0.102 P = 0.055 Day 75 Day 115 P = 0.37
  41. 41. Vulva Length association with puberty by 200 days χ2 = .97 .93 .10 .69 .47 50 40 EstrusMillimeters 30 No Estrus 20 10 0 75 85 95 105 115 Day of Age
  42. 42. Vulva Width association with puberty by 200 days χ2 = .56 .74 .07 .24 .84 40 35 Estrus 30 No EstrusMillimeters 25 20 15 10 5 0 75 85 95 105 115 Day of Age
  43. 43. Correlation between Vulva Width at Day 105 to age at first estrus 45 r = -0.20Day 105 Vulva Width (mm) P = 0.07 40 35 30 25 20 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 Age of First Estrus
  44. 44. Correlation between Vulva Width at Day 115 to age at first estrus 45 r = -0.28Day 115 Vulva Width (mm) P = 0.01 40 35 30 25 20 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 Age of First Estrus
  45. 45. Vulva Area association with puberty by 180 days of age < 1 St. Dev. Of Mean Within or > 1 St. Dev of Mean70% Total60%50%40%30%20%10%0% 75 85 95 105 115
  46. 46. Retrospective Analysis 90 Cyclic by day 160 80 Non-Cyclic by day 200Plasma Concentration (ng/mL) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 85 95 Day of Age 105 115
  47. 47. Summary and Implications• These data demonstrate an association between vulva development on day 95 and ability to achieve puberty by 200 days.• Of those animals that achieved puberty by 200 days: – body weight at day 75 and vulva width at days 105 and 115 were significantly correlated to age at first estrus.• These developmental time-points represent specific days in age that observations can be made to distinguish gilts with high and low probability of achieving puberty by 200 days of age.
  48. 48. Questions?Dr. Hanneke Feitsma Talk:https://connect.extension.iastate.edu/p78w1zjzjm9/Jason Ross Contact: jwross@iastate.edu
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