Dr. Jason Ross - Identification of measures predictive of age at first puberty

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Identification of measures predictive of age at first puberty - Dr. Jason Ross, from the 2012 Allen D. Leman Swine Conference, September 15-18, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA. …

Identification of measures predictive of age at first puberty - Dr. Jason Ross, from the 2012 Allen D. Leman Swine Conference, September 15-18, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.

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  • 1. Identification of measurespredictive of age at first puberty Kody L. Graves, Bethany Mordhorst, Nicole Oldfather, Elane C. Wright, Benjamin Hale, Aileen F. Keating, Ken Stalder, Jason W. Ross
  • 2. What is the importance of age of first puberty?• Impacts the profitability of a swine enterprise.• Gilts that demonstrate puberty early have less non-productive days than those that demonstrate first estrus late. (Patterson et al., 2010)• Heavier gilts at first breeding remain heavier compared to lighter counterparts at first breeding. (Rozeboom et al., 1996)• Age at first puberty is an indicators of lifetime productivity.• Lifetime productivity lacks heritability and can be influenced by environment.
  • 3. Age of Puberty Impacts Fallout Patterson et al., 2010 J. Anim Science
  • 4. The Hypothalamic Pituitary Gonadal Axis Hypothalamus Hypothalamus 5 GnRH 4 Positive feedback exerted 8 Travels via portal blood by large in estrogen 1 output. Anterior pituitary 1 5 Progesterone LH surge Estrogen FSH LH 6 Inhibin Ruptured 2 2 8 follicle3 Slightlyelevated 7estrogen Thecaland rising cellsinhibinlevels. Granulosa Androgens Corpus luteum cells Mature follicle Ovulated Convert secondary androgens to 2 Inhibin oocyte estrogens Late follicular and Early and midfollicular phases luteal phases Figure 27.19
  • 5. Kiss1 is the Ligand for GPR54A proposedmodel linkingenergy balanceand the initialGnRH pulsatilesecretionsresponsible forpuberty onset. Roa and Tena-Sempere, 2010
  • 6. Figure 1 Serum concentrations of LH and FSH (means±s.e.m.) for prepubertal gilts receiving i.c.v. infusion of saline or either 10 or 100 μg kisspeptin (Kiss). Lents C A et al. Reproduction 2008;135:879-887© 2008 Society for Reproduction and Fertility
  • 7. Variation in Prepubertal Follicular Development Day 98 ± 4 days N = 21 N = 27 Ross, Keating and Baumgard, unpublished.
  • 8. Hypothesis• Gilts that demonstrate follicular activity earliest will achieve puberty earliest. Additionally, these gilts will be phenotypically distinct in at least one physiological parameter.
  • 9. Objectives• To identify a specific time when a cohort of gilts demonstrate variability with regard to follicular development.• To determine the feasibility measuring parameters related to follicular development during prepubertal development. – Trans-abdominal ultrasound – Vulva development – Serum estradiol – Body weight• To determine if those factors have any relationship with age of puberty.
  • 10. Experimental Design• 155 Gilts ± 2 days of age• On Days 75, 85, 95, 105, 115 of age: – Body weight – Ultrasound (trans-abdominal) – Measure vulva width, vulva length – Blood draw – Sacrificed 10 gilts • Recorded follicular development • Uterine weight
  • 11. Experimental Design• Remaining 105 Gilts – Heat checked daily – Beginning at 129 days of age – Ending at 200 days of age• Determine association between phenotypes on days 75, 85, 95, 105, and 115 and age of first estrus.
  • 12. Body weight gain during prepubertal gilt development 90 80 70Body Weight (Kg) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 75 85 95 105 115 Day of Age
  • 13. Change in vulva length during prepubertal development 45 40 35 30Millimeters 25 20 15 10 5 0 75 85 95 105 115 Day of Age
  • 14. Change in vulva width during prepubertal development 40 35 30Millimeters 25 20 15 10 5 0 75 85 95 105 115 Day of Age
  • 15. Change in vulva area during prepubertal development 1400 1200 1000Millimeters2 800 600 400 200 0 75 85 95 105 115 Day of Age
  • 16. Prepubertal Follicle Development 12 No Follicle develoment 10 < 10 small folliclesFrequency 8 10->100 small follicles 6 4 2 0 75 85 95 105 115 Day of Age
  • 17. Uterine Weight of Gilts Sacrificed during Prepubertal Development 80Uterine Weight (grams) d 70 Day Effect P < 0.001 60 d 50 40 c 30 bc 20 ab 10 0 75 85 95 105 115 Day of Age
  • 18. Distribution of Age of First Estrus 30 25 20Frequency 15 10 5 0 Day of Age
  • 19. Body weight association with puberty by 200 days χ2 = .75 .57 .61 .78 .65 90 80 70 Estrus 60 No EstrusKilograms 50 40 30 20 10 0 75 85 95 105 115 Day of Age
  • 20. Body weight at Day 75 is correlated to age at first estrus 55 r = -0.217 50Day 75 body weight (Kg) P =0.055 45 40 35 30 25 135 155 175 195 Age of First Estrus
  • 21. Body weight at Day 85 lacks correlation to age at first estrus r = -0.136 60 P = 0.23Day 85 body weight (Kg) 55 50 45 40 35 30 135 155 175 195 Age of First Estrus
  • 22. Body weight at Day 95 lacks correlation to age at first estrus 70 r = -0.141 65Day 95 body weight (Kg) P = 0.22 60 55 50 45 40 135 155 175 195 Age of First Estrus
  • 23. Body weight at Day 105 lacks correlation to age at first estrus 80 r = -0.068 P = 0.55Day 105 body weight (Kg) 75 70 65 60 55 50 135 155 175 195 Age of First Estrus
  • 24. Body weight at Day 115 lacks correlation to age at first estrus 90 r = -0.102Day 115 body weight (Kg) P = 0.37 85 80 75 70 65 60 135 155 175 195 Age of First Estrus
  • 25. Relationship between body weight on days 75 and 115 and puberty onset 90% 85% 80% 77% 77% 77% 72% 73% 180 69% 69% 70%Percentage 60% 200 60% 60% 54% 50% 46% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Top Quartile Two Quartiles Middle Bottom Quartile Top Quartile Two Quartiles Middle Bottom Quartile r = -0.217 r = -0.102 P = 0.055 Day 75 Day 115 P = 0.37
  • 26. Vulva Length association with puberty by 200 days χ2 = .97 .93 .10 .69 .47 50 40 EstrusMillimeters 30 No Estrus 20 10 0 75 85 95 105 115 Day of Age
  • 27. Vulva Width association with puberty by 200 days χ2 = .56 .74 .07 .24 .84 40 35 Estrus 30 No EstrusMillimeters 25 20 15 10 5 0 75 85 95 105 115 Day of Age
  • 28. Correlation between Vulva Width at Day 75 to age at first estrus 35 r = -0.083Day 75 Vulva Width (mm) P = 0.46 30 25 20 15 10 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 Age of First Estrus
  • 29. Correlation between Vulva Width at Day 85 to age at first estrus 35 r = -0.118Day 85 Vulva Width (mm) P = 0.30 30 25 20 15 10 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 Age of First Estrus
  • 30. Correlation between Vulva Width at Day 95 to age at first estrus 40 r = -0.117Day 95 Vulva Width (mm) 35 P = 0.31 30 25 20 15 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 Age of First Estrus
  • 31. Correlation between Vulva Width at Day 105 to age at first estrus 45 r = -0.20Day 105 Vulva Width (mm) P = 0.07 40 35 30 25 20 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 Age of First Estrus
  • 32. Correlation between Vulva Width at Day 115 to age at first estrus 45 r = -0.28Day 115 Vulva Width (mm) P = 0.01 40 35 30 25 20 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 Age of First Estrus
  • 33. Vulva Area association with puberty by 200 days χ2 = .56 .90 .10 .39 .64 1400 1200 EstrusMillimeters2 1000 No Estrus 800 600 400 200 0 75 85 95 105 115 Day of Age
  • 34. Correlation between Vulva Area at Day 75 to age at first estrus 1400 r = -0.075Day 75 Vulva Area (mm2) 1200 P =0.51 1000 800 600 400 200 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 Age of First Estrus
  • 35. Correlation between Vulva Area at Day 85 to age at first estrus 1200 r = -0.065 1100 P =0.56Day 85 Vulva Area (mm2) 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 Age of First Estrus
  • 36. Correlation between Vulva Area at Day 95 to age at first estrus 1800 r = -0.119Day 95 Vulva Area (mm2) 1600 P = 0.30 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 Age of First Estrus
  • 37. Correlation between Vulva Area at Day 105 to age at first estrus 2000 1800 r = -0.135Day 105 Vulva Area (mm2) 1600 P = 0.24 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 Age of First Estrus
  • 38. Correlation between Vulva Area at Day 115 to age at first estrus 2000 r = -0.167 1800 P = 0.14Day 115 Vulva Area (mm2) 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 Age of First Estrus
  • 39. Vulva Area association with puberty by 180 days of age < 1 St. Dev. Of Mean Within or > 1 St. Dev of Mean70% Total60%50%40%30%20%10%0% 75 85 95 105 115
  • 40. Vulva Area association with puberty by 200 days of age < 1 St. Dev. Of Mean90% Within or > 1 St. Dev of Mean80% Total70%60%50%40%30%20%10% 0% 75 85 95 105 115
  • 41. Summary and Implications• These data demonstrate an association between vulva development on day 95 and ability to achieve puberty by 200 days.• Of those animals that achieved puberty by 200 days: – body weight at day 75 and vulva width at days 105 and 115 were significantly correlated to age at first estrus.• These developmental time-points represent specific days in age that observations can be made to distinguish gilts with high and low probability of achieving puberty by 200 days of age.
  • 42. Questions?