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Donald G. Levis, PhD
Levis Worldwide Swine Consultancy
Lincoln, Nebraska 68526
1
Dr. Mark Estienne
Virginia Tech University
Dr. Wayne Singleton
Purdue University (retired)
Dr. Rodney Baker
Iowa State Uni...
The sponsors of this project are greatly
appreciated. Thanks!
3
Reasons for development of the
troubleshooting guide:
• In the United States, the number of university “Extension”
people ...
Objectives of the computer format and preparation
of the information
• Keep everything as simple as possible
Make the com...
Select a main category for investigating a
problem with reproductive efficiency:
• Problems with replacement gilts
• Probl...
Problems with replacement gilts
• Problem with puberty attainment and
expression of estrous
• Problem with gilt pool being...
Problem with puberty attainment and expression
of estrous
• Workers need training in the proper procedures
for effectively...
Problem with puberty attainment and expression
of estrous
• Gilts exhibit first estrus in response to P.G. 600 but stop
cy...
There is poor synchrony of first estrus among
gilts.
• 1. Housing and Environment Questions
• Is there a large variation i...
There is poor synchrony of first estrus among gilts.
• 2. Boar Exposure Questions
• Are gilts at an appropriate age (165 t...
• 2. Boar Exposure Questions (Continued)
• Do gilts receive direct physical contact only 5 days
per week with mature boar(...
• 2. Boar Exposure Questions (Continued)
• Do gilts receive a few minutes of fence-line
exposure 7 days per week with matu...
Are the gilts exposed to several different
mature boars when stimulating gilts to cycle?
It is likely that efficacy of the...
15
Levis, D. G. 2010. Gilt management in the BEAR system. Factsheet. Pork Information
Gateway. U.S. Pork Center of Excelle...
16
17
Select a main category having a problem
with reproductive efficiency:
• Problems with replacement gilts
• Problems with...
Problems with sows
• Sow longevity is too low due to high
replacement rate, culling rate, and lameness.
• Sows have a low ...
Preweaning mortality is too high.
• Piglet mortality is high during farrowing and
first 24 hours after birth. [102 questio...
Piglet mortality is high during farrowing and
first 24 hours after birth.
• 1. Sow care prior to farrowing [6 questions]
•...
Example questions from Day 1 Pig Care
Are first born piglets marked and removed after stomach is
full (within 2 hours of b...
22
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24
Hours after onset of farrowing
IgG,mg/mL
Measurement not taken
Figure ...
23
Figure 3. Accumulated full-stomach piglets.Figure 2. Full-stomach piglets
2424
Select a main category having a problem
with reproductive efficiency:
• Problems with replacement gilts
• Problems wi...
Select the topic area concerning semen quality
and the possibility of lowering farrowing rate
• An analysis of records to ...
Example questions about semen quality
Was motility estimated on a 0 to 100% basis?
Sperm motility is generally estimated t...
Motility of sperm cells (video)
27
Are there indications of bacterial contamination?
Semen agglutination is one visual indication of bacterial
contamination....
Extremely bad case of bacteria in boar semen
29
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Dr. Don Levis - Reproductive Decision Tree

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Reproductive Decision Tree - Dr. Don Levis, Levis Worldwide Swine Consultancy, from the 2013 World Pork Expo, June 5 - 7, 2013, Des Moines, IA, USA.

More presentations at http://www.swinecast.com/2013-world-pork-expo

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Transcript of "Dr. Don Levis - Reproductive Decision Tree"

  1. 1. Donald G. Levis, PhD Levis Worldwide Swine Consultancy Lincoln, Nebraska 68526 1
  2. 2. Dr. Mark Estienne Virginia Tech University Dr. Wayne Singleton Purdue University (retired) Dr. Rodney Baker Iowa State University Dr. Tim Safranski University of Missouri Dr. William Flowers North Carolina State Univ. Dr. Rob Knox University of Illinois Dr. Ken Stalder Iowa State University Dr. Mark Knauer North Carolina State Univ. Committee chair: Dr. David Meisinger, USPCE Lead Author: Dr. Don Levis, Levis Worldwide Swine Consultancy Co-authors: 2
  3. 3. The sponsors of this project are greatly appreciated. Thanks! 3
  4. 4. Reasons for development of the troubleshooting guide: • In the United States, the number of university “Extension” people academically trained in reproductive physiology of swine is small. – Don Levis (University of Nebraska - retired, active consultancy business) – Wayne Singleton (Purdue University - retired) – Mark Estienne (Virginia Tech) – Rob Knox (University of Illinois) • Universities have just about totally eliminated on-farm visits and solving of reproductive problems. • Get all the questions, answers, available publications, and references related to reproductive problems of the swine breeding herd in one location. 4
  5. 5. Objectives of the computer format and preparation of the information • Keep everything as simple as possible Make the computer program highly user friendly and as simple as possible (no fancy animation stuff that takes up a lot of memory space) Make the appearance of the information as simple as possible Answer the question in simple terms and provide documentation for the answer Search document for specific term Have the information readily available to all pork producers and allied industries. 5
  6. 6. Select a main category for investigating a problem with reproductive efficiency: • Problems with replacement gilts • Problems with sows • Problems with semen quality 6 Screen Level 1
  7. 7. Problems with replacement gilts • Problem with puberty attainment and expression of estrous • Problem with gilt pool being too small • Problem with low litter size • Problem with low farrowing rate 7 Screen Level 2
  8. 8. Problem with puberty attainment and expression of estrous • Workers need training in the proper procedures for effectively detecting estrus in gilts [Blue Box Button – has a publication on estrus detection] • Gilts fail to exhibit first estrus or exhibit a first estrus that is delayed. [33 questions] • Gilts exhibit first estrus but stop cycling after one or more estrous cycles. [25 questions] • A high percentage of gilts (30 to 40% %) do not exhibiting first estrus after treatment with P.G. 600 [19 questions] 8 Screen Level 3
  9. 9. Problem with puberty attainment and expression of estrous • Gilts exhibit first estrus in response to P.G. 600 but stop cycling after one or more estrous cycles. [25 questions] • Gilts exhibit first estrus but then exhibit abnormal estrous cycles. [25 questions] • Gilts exhibit first estrus but then exhibit abnormal estrous cycles after treatment with P.G.600. [25questions] • There is poor synchrony of first estrus among gilts. [22 questions] • Gilts exhibit weak signs of first estrus; i.e, they stop briefly for back-pressure-test and then run off. [15 questions] 9 Screen Level 3 (continued)
  10. 10. There is poor synchrony of first estrus among gilts. • 1. Housing and Environment Questions • Is there a large variation in the age and degree of sexual maturation among potential replacement gilts? • Are gilts at an appropriate age and body size to continue expressing estrous cycles after first estrus? • Were gilts exposed to boars prior to entering the breeding barn? • Were gilts relocated and transported from rearing facilities to a new location, such as the breeding barn? • Were gilts mixed with contemporary gilts from other pens within 2 weeks before expected natural attainment of puberty? • Were gilts exposed to ambient temperatures above 85 F? • Were methods used to cool gilts when ambient temperature was above 85 F? 10 Screen Level 3
  11. 11. There is poor synchrony of first estrus among gilts. • 2. Boar Exposure Questions • Are gilts at an appropriate age (165 to 180 days old) and body size (240 to 260 pounds) to respond to boar stimuli? • Do all boars exhibit good libido when stimulating gilts (i.e., chant, chomp, salivate, mount)? • Do the gilts appear intimidated by the size and(or) behavior of the boars used for stimulation? • Do gilts receive continuous (24 hours per day) direct physical contact with a sterilized boar? 11 Screen Level 3
  12. 12. • 2. Boar Exposure Questions (Continued) • Do gilts receive direct physical contact only 5 days per week with mature boar(s)? • Do gilts receive direct physical contact 7 days per week with the mature boar(s)? • Do gilts receive direct physical contact 2 times per day with mature boar(s)? • Do gilts receive direct physical contact for at least 5 to 10 minutes per day with mature boar(s)? • Do gilts receive continuous (24 hours per day) fence- line exposure to mature boars? • Do gilts receive fence-line exposure only 5 days per week to mature boar(s)? 12
  13. 13. • 2. Boar Exposure Questions (Continued) • Do gilts receive a few minutes of fence-line exposure 7 days per week with mature boar(s)? • Do gilts receive fence-line exposure 2 times per day to mature boars? • Do gilts receive fence-line exposure for at least 5 to 10 minutes per day to mature boars? • Are all boars used for gilts stimulation sexually mature and at least 11 months of age? • Are the gilts exposed to several different mature boars when stimulating gilts to cycle? 13
  14. 14. Are the gilts exposed to several different mature boars when stimulating gilts to cycle? It is likely that efficacy of the boar effect in stimulating gilts to begin estrous cycle is enhanced if gilts are exposed to several different mature boars rather than a single boar. It is likely that there are differences among boars of similar genetics and age in their ability to stimulate the onset of puberty in gilts (Zimmerman et al., 1997). Indeed, there may be differences in quantity or type of pheromones emitted, level and frequency of their vocalizations, willingness to sustain physical interactions with gilts, and/or libido. Thus, it is recommended that gilts be exposed to several different mature boars when attempting to stimulate estrous cycles. Modern systems such as the boar exposure area (BEAR) make use of multiple “teaser” boars housed in stalls separating two pens used for stimulating gilts and detecting estrus (Levis, 2010). 14
  15. 15. 15 Levis, D. G. 2010. Gilt management in the BEAR system. Factsheet. Pork Information Gateway. U.S. Pork Center of Excellence. National Pork Board. Des Moines, IA. PIG 08- 05-01.
  16. 16. 16
  17. 17. 17 Select a main category having a problem with reproductive efficiency: • Problems with replacement gilts • Problems with sows • Problems with semen quality Screen Level 1
  18. 18. Problems with sows • Sow longevity is too low due to high replacement rate, culling rate, and lameness. • Sows have a low farrowing rate. • Sows have a low number of piglets born per litter. • Weaning-to-service interval is too long. • Preweaning mortality is too high. 18 Screen Level 2
  19. 19. Preweaning mortality is too high. • Piglet mortality is high during farrowing and first 24 hours after birth. [102 questions] • Piglet mortality is high during days 2 to 3 after birth. [50 questions] • Piglet mortality is high after day 3 of birth to weaning. [35 questions] 19 Screen Level 3
  20. 20. Piglet mortality is high during farrowing and first 24 hours after birth. • 1. Sow care prior to farrowing [6 questions] • 2. Day 1 pig care [19 questions] • 3. Stillborn piglets [18 questios] • 4. Crushing/lying on piglets [28 questions] • 5. Litter size, birth weight and birth order [5 questions] • 6. Mammary glands and piglet behavior [9 questions] • 7. Savaging of piglets [11 questions] 20
  21. 21. Example questions from Day 1 Pig Care Are first born piglets marked and removed after stomach is full (within 2 hours of birth)? Piglets born later in the litter are at a competitive disadvantage to those born early in the process. Colostrum is produced by mammary glands accumulating antibodies and immunoglobulins which are then dispensed with the milk (Devillers et al., 2007; Foisnet et al., 2010; Markowska-Daniel et al., 2010). As such, the quality of the colostrum decreases as milk is nursed (Figure 1). Piglets born earlier in the birth process who have achieved a full-stomach of colostrum can be removed for 1.5 hours to assist later born piglets in getting a large quantity of high quality colostrum (Figure 2 and 3). This time should be recorded and piglets returned to the litter not more than two hours later. Sows typically let milk down about once an hour. It is undesirable to have piglets miss more than one subsequent nursing event. 21
  22. 22. 22 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 Hours after onset of farrowing IgG,mg/mL Measurement not taken Figure 1. Colostrum concentration of IgG after onset of farrowing (Foisnet et al., 2010)
  23. 23. 23 Figure 3. Accumulated full-stomach piglets.Figure 2. Full-stomach piglets
  24. 24. 2424 Select a main category having a problem with reproductive efficiency: • Problems with replacement gilts • Problems with sows • Problems with semen quality Screen Level 1
  25. 25. Select the topic area concerning semen quality and the possibility of lowering farrowing rate • An analysis of records to indicate whether semen quality could be lowering farrowing rate [Blue Box] • Receiving, storing, and handling commercial or off-site boar stud semen at the sow farm [37 questions] • Collecting, processing, storing, and handling of semen on the sow farm [51 questions] 25
  26. 26. Example questions about semen quality Was motility estimated on a 0 to 100% basis? Sperm motility is generally estimated to the nearest 5% on a 0 to 100% basis. Because motility has an effect on number of doses that can be made, it is an advantage to estimate motility to the nearest 5% for raw semen. Remember motility is influenced by temperature and must be evaluated immediately after the slide is properly prepared at 37 C (98.6 F). 26 Link to motility videos: No. 1, No. 3, No. 4, and No. 6 Link to Singleton’s 2009 Sow Bridge Powerpoint presentation: On-farm semen evaluation
  27. 27. Motility of sperm cells (video) 27
  28. 28. Are there indications of bacterial contamination? Semen agglutination is one visual indication of bacterial contamination. Decreased storage life of semen, reduced female fertility, vaginal discharges in mated females and in extreme cases even female death may be associated with bacterial contamination. Bacterial cultures should be negative at 24 hours incubation and no significant growth after 48 hours is preferred. Semen is not sterile and although bacterial inhibitors (antimicrobials) are added mishandling, poor storage conditions, and prolonged storage can result in bacterial proliferation. [References button] 28
  29. 29. Extremely bad case of bacteria in boar semen 29
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