Alternative feed ingredients – real   options or just a nice idea?                 Dr. Brian Richert           Department ...
U.S. Corn Utilization                                                            2010 – 12.5 Bil. Bu                      ...
Ingredient Substitutions• Pigs don’t require corn & SBM• Corn-SBM diets typically provide the “best”  nutrition at the low...
Are there added costs of          utilizing the by-product?• Added transportation             • Reduced facility &        ...
Energy Replacement Options for Corn Ingredient            $/ton        ME / lb     Cost/1000 ME Corn                  206-...
How much Alternative Feed               Ingredients to Use?    • It depends!    • Stage of Production / Age of Pig      – ...
DDGS Nutrition Options     • Energy     • Amino Acids (Protein)     • Phosphorus       Variations in Distillers Dried Grai...
Quick Check on AA Availability   • Use the ratio of total lysine to CP of 2.80   • Example: DDGS has 0.83% Lys and 30% CP ...
Nursery: Performance 25-50 lbs                     Exp. 5     1.8     1.7     1.6     1.5     1.4     1.3     1.2     1.1 ...
Increasing levels of DDGS on Grower                     pig ADG                lb/d                                       ...
Effect on Carcass Weight                      220Carcass weight, lbs                      210                   - 6.0 lbs ...
40% DDGS and 5% Fat• 40% DDGS decreased ADG 11% (2.27 vs 2.04  lb/d), ADFI 6.3%, FE 4.3% in Exp. 1   – 40% DDGS decreased ...
Sow Research• Hill et al., 2005 (Lactation)   – 15% DDGS vs 5% BP   – No effect on Lactation performance   – Slight reduct...
DDGS and Pork Quality• Processing/Handling issues  – Fat firmness (IV values increase to 75-80)  – Shelf-life  – Export ma...
Different Levels of DDGS on Belly                 Quality  0%, no Added Fat                                            10%...
Iodine Value85            P < 0.0001                                        79.64a ± 0.60080                              ...
Consumer Purchase Intent                                            Corn-SBM       25%       25% DDGS                     ...
Can the Belly and Loin problems              be fixed?       • Withdrawal Programs?       • 3-4 or 6-8 week DDGS withdrawa...
Impact of 25% DDGS Withdrawal and             RactopamineDDGS            0      0       25      25          25-4       25-...
Taste Panel EvaluationConsumer Preference on Fresh Bratwurst Purchase Gestation    Lactation                          Woul...
21
Other Economic concerns• IF PERFORMANCE IS REDUCED• What is time worth?  – Need time to put on more weight  – 3 lbs in nur...
Recommended Use of DDGS in Swine Diets   My Optimal Use Recommendations   Nursery – 0, 0, 7.5, 15%   Grow-finish – 20, 25,...
Increasing wheat midds in Grow-          finish pig dietsWheat midds (%):                      0     10          20       ...
Increasing DDGS and increasing    Wheat Midds in Grow-finish                Corn Soy –     15% DDGS          30% DDGS     ...
Soyhulls in Finishing pig diets      Soyhulls        0           3         6       9         9 + 4%      Signif.          ...
Enzyme Use with By-products• Match enzyme to substrate• Increase energy and or AA digestibility• Denature anti-nutritional...
Adding Feed Ingredients to the Mill•   Space / Electrical•   Feed System capabilities•   35 ton tank - $10,000•   Product ...
Economics of Swine Nutrition•   Cost per ton of feed•   Cost per unit of lysine•   Cost per unit of digestible lysine•   C...
Questions? Swine Nutrient Excretion Issues           with DDGS• N excretion increases 15-200+%   – Ammonia emissions?• P c...
New Fractionation Processes willchange DDGS and it’s nutritional value • Degerming   – Press the oil to human or Bio-diese...
Dakota Gold Products• Distillers wet Grains• Dakota Gold - DDGS• Dakota Gold – HP   – Endosperm fraction• Corn Germ Dehydr...
33
Rapid Lab Tests for QualityStein, Pahm, and Pedersen, 2005•   One-Step pepsin digest – R2 = 0.52•   Two-Step pepsin-pancre...
Replacement ratio strategies with         DDGS + Lysine• 65 Corn : 22 SBM : 11 Fat : 1 Dical  – PU• 57.0 Corn : 42.5 SBM  ...
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Dr. Brian Richert - PDF - Alternative Feed Ingredients: Real Options or Just a Nice Idea?

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Alternative Feed Ingredients: Real Options or Just a Nice Idea? - Dr. Brian Richert, Associate Professor of Animal Sciences, Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, from the 2012 Minnesota Pork Congress, January 18-19, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

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Transcript of "Dr. Brian Richert - PDF - Alternative Feed Ingredients: Real Options or Just a Nice Idea?"

  1. 1. Alternative feed ingredients – real options or just a nice idea? Dr. Brian Richert Department of Animal Sciences Background• Biofuels: Is it the savior?• Reduce Dependency on Foreign Oil• Improve the Environment• Reinvest in rural America• Decrease Government subsidies to Farmers due to higher grain prices 1
  2. 2. U.S. Corn Utilization 2010 – 12.5 Bil. Bu 2010 – 13% 2010 – 34% 2010 – 37% 2010 – 13%Source: Nicolle Rager Fuller, National Science Foundation, 2005 Energy and Amino Acid Sources 2
  3. 3. Ingredient Substitutions• Pigs don’t require corn & SBM• Corn-SBM diets typically provide the “best” nutrition at the lowest cost• In times of high corn and SBM prices, producers can make $ using alternate feed ingredientsIs the nutrient composition suited to swine feeding?• Check composition tables & lab analyses• Are the nutrients available to the pig? If not, why bother feeding it?• Is there a palatability issue?• Potential for nutrient imbalances – Ca-P or Amino Acids?• Mycotoxins or other anti-nutritional factors 3
  4. 4. Are there added costs of utilizing the by-product?• Added transportation • Reduced facility & equipment life• Storage • More mgnt time• Processing equipment • Manure problems• Facility modifications • Increased health risk• Additional labor • Reduced performance due to• Feed wastage product variability Energy Replacement Options for Corn Ingredient $/ton ME / lb Cost/1000 ME Corn 240-250 1550 0.0790 Sorghum 228-233 1515 0.0759 Wheat-feed grade 300-325 1455 0.1074 Wheat Midds 166-174 1370 0.0620 Barley 196 1322 0.0741 Oats 256 1230 0.1041 Pulverized Oats 140-145 1230 0.0578 Soybean hulls 145-190 1064 0.0775 DDGS 195-210 1560 0.0657 Corn Gluten feed 142-160 1180 0.0636 Hominy Feed 180-190 1455 0.0636 Bakery By-product 260-280 1680 0.0804 Choice White Grease 880-920 3608 0.1247 Prices from USDA and Feedstuffs March, 2011 4
  5. 5. Energy Replacement Options for Corn Ingredient $/ton ME / lb Cost/1000 ME Corn 206-216 1550 0.0671 Sorghum 204-218 1515 0.0696 Wheat-feed grade 202-215 1455 0.0716 Wheat Midds 145-175 1370 0.0584 Barley 219 1322 0.0741 Oats 212 1230 0.0862 Pulverized Oats 138-145 1230 0.0575 Soybean hulls 150-205 1064 0.0705 DDGS 175-190 1560 0.0593 Corn Gluten feed 145-190 1180 0.0742 Hominy Feed 195-205 1455 0.0687 Bakery By-product 260-280 1680 0.0804 Choice White Grease 800-860 3608 0.1109 Prices from USDA and Feedstuffs Jan.2-Jan.13, 2012Digestible Lysine Replacement Options for Corn Ingredient $/ton dLys , % Cost / lb Lys Corn 206-216 .203 51.72 Sorghum 204-218 .178 59.27 Wheat-feed grade 202-215 .275 37.57 Wheat Midds 145-175 .507 15.78 Barley 219 .324 33.80 Oats 212 .304 34.87 Pulverized Oats 138-145 .304 23.19 Soybean hulls 150-205 .419 20.80 DDGS 175-190 .484 19.11 Corn Gluten feed 145-190 .416 21.03 Hominy Feed 195-205 .247 40.49 Bakery By-product 260-280 .208 64.90 SBM, 48% 295-315 2.718 5.61 Prices from USDA and Feedstuffs Nov. 30-Dec. 2, 2011 5
  6. 6. How much Alternative Feed Ingredients to Use? • It depends! • Stage of Production / Age of Pig – Carcass implications • What is your ingredient costs – $4-4.50 or $6-7 corn • What is your environmental status? – Can you use more manure N and P?Effect of Processing Method on DDGS QualityLow Quality, High Quality,Less Digestible Highly DigestibleDDGS DDGS 6
  7. 7. DDGS Nutrition Options • Energy • Amino Acids (Protein) • Phosphorus Variations in Distillers Dried Grains w/solubles from 36 New Generation Plants Swine Digestibility• Protein 63.5 – 84.3% - 72.8 Avg.• Lysine 43.9 – 77.9% - 62.3 Avg.• Threonine 61.9 – 82.5% - 70.7 Avg.• Tryptophan 54.2 – 80.1% - 69.9 Avg.• Methionine 73.7 – 89.2% - 81.9 Avg.• Phosphorus – .77 - .90% Tot.P vs Corn at .28% Tot.P (15% Dig.) – 35-85% Digestible; Avg. 59%• Stein, 2007 7
  8. 8. Quick Check on AA Availability • Use the ratio of total lysine to CP of 2.80 • Example: DDGS has 0.83% Lys and 30% CP – 0.83 / 0.30 = 2.76 – 0.83 / 0.28 = 2.96 – 0.78 / 0.30 = 2.60 • As CP goes up so should analyzable lysine Nursery: Performance 12-20 lbs Exp. 2 (Phase 2) 1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% DDGS DDGS DDGS DDGS DDGS DDGS ADG 0.57 0.58 0.49 0.50 0.45 0.47 ADFI 0.72 0.83 0.67 0.64 0.67 0.62 G:F 0.65 0.62 0.65 0.59 0.62 0.6220 or 25% DDGS Gain P = 0.57Gain = 1.5 lb lighter after 2 weeks Feed Intake P = 0.05Consumed 2 lb less Feed G:F P = 0.70 Whitney and Shurson, 2004 8
  9. 9. Nursery: Performance 25-50 lbs Exp. 5 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 1 10% 20% 30% 40% Control DDGS DDGS DDGS DDGS ADG 1.32 a 1.32 a 1.28 ab 1.22 b 1.23 b a a ab b b ADFI 1.79 1.76 1.72 1.65 1.65 F:G 1.35 1.33 1.34 1.35 1.3430 or 40% DDGS Gain P < 0.01Gain = 1.5 lb lighter after 2 weeks Feed Intake P < 0.01Consumed 2 lb less Feed F:G P = 0.79 Gaines et al. 2006 Feeding DDGS to Finisher Pigs 9
  10. 10. Increasing levels of DDGS on Grower pig ADG lb/d DDGS, P < 0.06 2.3 SE=0.033 2.06 2.04 2.07 0 2.1 2.03 1.97 5 10 1.9 15 20 1.7 1.5 0 5 10 15 20 Percent Distillers Linneen et al., 2007; KSU Increasing levels of DDGS on Grow- Finish pig ADG lb/d lb/d 2.4 DDGS linear, P < 0.10 DDGS linear, P < 0.012.1 2.27 2.23 2.18 2.16 1.89 0 2.2 01.9 1.87 1.83 1.84 10 10 20 20 30 2 301.71.5 1.8 0 10 20 30 0 10 20 30 Percent Distillers Diets balanced on an Avail. AA Basis Linneen et al., 2005, KSU Fu et al., 2004, Univ. of Missouri 10
  11. 11. Effect on Carcass Weight 220Carcass weight, lbs 210 - 6.0 lbs - 6.5 lbs - 9.5 lbs 200 a ab ab b 190 180 0% DDGS 10% DDGS 20% DDGS 30% DDGS DDGS treatment Diet, P = 0.04 Fu et al. 2003 Increasing levels of DDGS on Finishing pig Variability CV, %12 DDGS, P < 0.02 10.410 SE=0.74 8.3 0 8 6.92 7.15 10 20 6 30 4 2 0 10 20 30 Percent Distillers Whitney et al., 2006 11
  12. 12. 40% DDGS and 5% Fat• 40% DDGS decreased ADG 11% (2.27 vs 2.04 lb/d), ADFI 6.3%, FE 4.3% in Exp. 1 – 40% DDGS decreased Carcass Wt 19.2 lb over a 69 day feeding period.• Decreased ADG 6.2% (1.80 vs 1.69 lb/d), ADFI 4%, FE 2.3% and 10 lb carcass wt. in Exp. 2 over 70 days.• Added Beef Tallow , Palm oil, coconut, or stearic fat could not restore growth Feoli, et al., 2008 60% DDGS in GF 20% DDGS 60% DDGS P< B G B G DDGSD 0-78ADG 1.96 1.91 1.85 1.83 0.001ADFI 5.22 4.89 5.17 4.84 NSFG 2.67 2.56 2.79 2.64 0.001BW, lb 233.4 226.8 223.4 221.2 0.001Jowl IV 69.9 72.5 80.7 83.8 0.001Switch 60% to 20% d 78-99ADG 2.40 2.30 2.54 2.47 0.01Final BW 281.7 273.5 275.9 271.3 0.02Carcass 210.3 203.1 204.7 199.6 0.01WtJowl IV 71.1 74.4 80.2 82.2 0.05 Bergstrom et al., 2010 12
  13. 13. Sow Research• Hill et al., 2005 (Lactation) – 15% DDGS vs 5% BP – No effect on Lactation performance – Slight reduction in fecal P • Urinary P?• Univ. of Kentucky (1995) – Can go as high as 40% DDGS in Gestation • 80% DDGS decreased litter size by about 1 pig – Can go as high as 80% CGF in Gestation Sow Research• Univ. of Minn. – Can go as high as 50% in Gestation • Sows eat slowly at 50%, but will consume allotment – 20% in Lactation – Warning – need to start Gestation DDGS before Lactation or Lactation FI will be Decreased – Up to 30% DDGS or HP DDGS, No prefeeding DDGS in Gestation - 2010 – High DDGS feeding can lead to discounts on cull sows due to poor fat quality 13
  14. 14. DDGS and Pork Quality• Processing/Handling issues – Fat firmness (IV values increase to 75-80) – Shelf-life – Export marketing- decrease in marbling score and increase in fat separation from the lean – Increased problems with processed products• Potential human health issues – n-6:n-3 • n-6 increases drastically (doubles) – Fatty acid composition – high linoleic (18:2)Impact of DDGS on Iodine Value • Increase in IV for each 10% DDGS – Backfat - 2.4 units – Jowl - 1.6 units – Belly - 3.0 units KSU Summary, 11/2007 14
  15. 15. Different Levels of DDGS on Belly Quality 0%, no Added Fat 10% DDGS 20% DDGS 30% DDGS0% DDGS + ~ 3% Added Fat (CWG) 15
  16. 16. Iodine Value85 P < 0.0001 79.64a ± 0.60080 71.15b ± 0.6007570 62.54c ± 0.6076560555045 Corn-SBM Control 25% DDGS 25% DDGS + 5.3% RG Bacon Slice Yield Percent relative change from dietary Dietary treatment treatment1,2 SE Corn-SBM Control 0.0a ---- 25% DDGS -2.95a 2.64 25% DDGS + 5.3% RG -18.46b 2.64 1 n=40 per dietary treatment 2 Means followed by different superscripts differ, P<0.01 16
  17. 17. Consumer Purchase Intent Corn-SBM 25% 25% DDGS Control DDGS + 5.3% RG Uncooked bacon Would purchase 70.68 72.18 47.32 Might or might not purchase 21.05 20.30 29.46 Would not purchase 8.27 7.52 23.21 Cooked bacon Would purchase 68.65 67.67 50.45 Might or might not purchase 24.63 24.81 28.83 Would not purchase 6.72 7.52 20.72 Increasing levels of DDGS on Pork Quality Cont. Cont. + 10% 20% 30% NF ~ 3% CWGBellybending,%Barrows 100ax 96ax 91ax 59bx 49bxGilts 80ax 82ax 67aby 44bcy 27cy%BF – loin 25.0 16.7 66.7 75.0 91.7SeparationabcMeans within a row are significantly different (P< 0.05).xyMeans within a column are significantly different (P< 0.05). Weimer et al., 2007 17
  18. 18. Can the Belly and Loin problems be fixed? • Withdrawal Programs? • 3-4 or 6-8 week DDGS withdrawal • Interaction with Ractopamine feeding? • Increased Tallow feeding 4 or 8 weeks? • Combinations of withdrawal, Fats, CLA? Effect of 30% DDGS withdrawal time on dressing percent 80.0 78.0 77.1 77.1 76.5Yeild, % 75.9 76.0 74.0 72.0 Control none 3 wk 6 wk 30% DDGS JBS United 2007 18
  19. 19. Impact of 25% DDGS Withdrawal and RactopamineDDGS 0 0 25 25 25-4 25-4RAC - + - + - +Mkt Wt. 267.4 285.4 260.4 274.6 270.5 280.9Yield, % 74.7 75.5 74.4 75.3 74.3 75.9Carcass Wt. 199.7 215.4 193.5 206.8 200.2 213.2 Purdue University 2007 Sows and Brat Quality 19
  20. 20. Taste Panel EvaluationConsumer Preference on Fresh Bratwurst Purchase Gestation Lactation Would not Purchase Undecided DDGS DDGS purchase 0 80.49 12.20 7.32 0 15 71.43 23.81 4.76 30 68.29 24.39 7.32 0 73.17 21.95 4.88 15 15 65.00 30.00 5.00 30 65.85 29.27 4.88 0 52.50 27.50 20.00 30 15 53.84 20.51 25.64 30 42.50 45.00 12.50 P<0.016Possible Sow Body Fat Changes• Assume sows are 65 IV points, sold two weeks after farrowing. – Fed 20% DDGS, now 71.4 – Fed 30% DDGS, now 74.6 – Fed 40% DDGS, now 77.8 – Fed 50% DDGS, now 81.0• Long Term use of DGGS may create a change in CWG FA profiles – reflective of the DDGS fed to slaughter animals! 20
  21. 21. 21
  22. 22. Other Economic concerns• IF PERFORMANCE IS REDUCED• What is time worth? – Need time to put on more weight – 3 lbs in nursery, 10-25 lb GF – 1-2 more weeks – extra $0.70-$1.50 – Another 6.5 lb/d feed = 40-100 lb more feed (at 0.11/lb = $4.40-11 more feed) – OR 4-15 lb less carcass X $0.75 = $3.00 - $11.25 less Income / pig – How much feed cost did you save? How much DDGS to Use?• It depends!• Stage of Production / Age of Pig – Carcass implications• What is your ingredient costs – $4-4.50 or $6-7 corn• What is your environmental status? – Can you use more manure N and P? 22
  23. 23. Recommended Use of DDGS in Swine Diets My Optimal Use Recommendations Nursery – 0, 0, 7.5, 15% Grow-finish – 20, 25, 25, 0% Lactation – 10% Gestation – 30% My Maximum Use Recommendations Nursery – 0, 5, 10, 20% Grow-finish – 30, 40, 40, 10% Increased Lysine use Lactation – 25% Gestation – 50% Decreased Threonine, Methionine Dical or Monocal Increasing Wheat Midds in Nursery pig diets Corn Soy 5% WM 10% WM 20% WM Linear P< –Control 0% WM26-52 lbADG, lb 1.27 1.25 1.25 1.21 0.05ADFI, lb 2.08 2.08 1.99 1.97 0.004F/G 1.64 1.66 1.60 1.63 0.36D 21 wt, lb 52.90 52.43 52.25 51.53 0.01Bulk 53.09 50.69 47.80 43.18Densitylb/buWheat midds replaced about 1.2% SBM and 3.8% Corn for every 5% inclusion De Jong et al., 2011 23
  24. 24. Increasing wheat midds in Grow- finish pig dietsWheat midds (%): 0 10 20 40 60Light or clean middsDaily gain, lb 1.81 1.78 1.72 1.70 1.59Daily feed, lb 5.93 6.12 5.99 5.99 5.85Feed:gain 3.27 3.42 3.49 3.54 3.70Heavy or starchy middsDaily gain, lb 1.83 1.76 1.83 1.72 1.65Daily feed, lb 5.99 5.81 5.94 5.72 6.17Feed:gain 3.27 3.29 3.25 3.35 3.74 Light midds – 18-20 lb/cu ft; Heavy midds – 22-24 lb/cu ft Cromwell, 1997 20% DDGS and increasing Wheat Midds in Grow-finish Corn Soy DDGS + DDGS + DDGS + Linear P< -Control 0% WM 10% WM 20% WM100-295 lbADG, lb 2.32 2.29 2.22 2.19 0.01F/G 3.00 3.06 3.09 3.11 0.01HCWT 220.7 216.3 210 206.4 0.01 Barnes et al., 2010 24
  25. 25. Increasing DDGS and increasing Wheat Midds in Grow-finish Corn Soy – 15% DDGS 30% DDGS Linear P< Control + +6.25% WM +12.5% WM 2.4% CWG +1.2%CWG106-270 lbADG, lb 2.22 2.17 2.12 0.001F/G 2.86 2.91 3.01 0.001HCWT 201.3 196.9 192.5 0.001Yield, % 73.4 73.0 72.4 0.01Bulk Density -8.2% -16.3% No effect of 4,000 units xylanase to improve growth performance Barnes et al., 2011 Hominy Feed in Grow-finish Hominy 0 12.5% 25% 37.5% Linear P< D0-84 ADG, lb 2.24 2.13 2.11 2.05 0.01 ADFI, lb 6.32 5.90 5.91 5.72 0.01 F/G 2.82 2.78 2.80 2.78 0.35 D0 Wt., lb 79.4 78.8 79.4 79.6 0.68 D84 Wt., lb 268.2 257.8 258.9 253.3 0.01 Hominy is the corn bran, germ, and some starch from corn grits/flour industry CP=9.5%, Fat = 4.5%, CF = 2.8% Potter et al., 2010 25
  26. 26. Soyhulls in Finishing pig diets Soyhulls 0 3 6 9 9 + 4% Signif. Fat Wk 0-4 ADG, lb 2.05 2.19 1.85 1.92 2.14 L 0.04 G:F .310 .326 .310 .306 .337 Q.10 Wk 4-8 ADG, lb 2.02 1.98 1.93 1.90 1.97 L 0.10 G:F .279 .274 .271 .252 .275 L 0.03 Wk 0-8 ADG, lb 2.03 2.08 1.89 1.91 2.05 L 0.01 G:F .294 .295 .288 .276 .302 L 0.02 Bowers et al., 2000 Extrusion of Corn, Sorghum, Wheat or Barley for finishing pigs Corn Sorghum Wheat Barley Grd Ext Grd Ext Grd Ext Grd ExtADG,lb 2.22 2.22 2.19 2.13 2.12 2.09 1.97 1.95ADFI, 6.58 6.29 6.83 6.05 6.80 6.34 6.54 6.30lbF/G 2.96 2.83 3.12 2.84 3.21 3.03 3.32 3.23F/G % 4.4 9.0 5.6 2.7Improv.DM Dig 86.7 91.4 88.8 90.2 86.0 85.9 75.9 82.4N Dig 81.8 88.0 79.7 84.4 85.4 85.4 70.5 78.8 Hancock et al., 1992 26
  27. 27. Enzyme Use with By-products• Match enzyme to substrate• Increase energy and or AA digestibility• Denature anti-nutritional factors – Xylanase – Glucanase – Mannanase – Galactosidases – Amylase – Proteases – Cellulase and Hemi-cellulasesRecommend Inclusion rates of alternative feed stuffs• Range based on composition – Energy (lipid and fiber limits) – Amino acids – Cost of the nutrients – Feed Flowability and processing – Bulk density – deliver only 20 or 21 tons vs 25 tons? – Consistency – eg. Low or high fat DDGS – Lowest in Nursery 27
  28. 28. Adding Feed Ingredients to the Mill• Space / Electrical• Feed System capabilities• 35 ton tank - $10,000• Product availability? – Sourcing through marketers or nutritionists• Product fit?• Return on investment 28
  29. 29. Economics of Swine Nutrition• Cost per ton of feed• Cost per unit of lysine• Cost per unit of digestible lysine• Cost per unit of digestible energy• Total feed cost per pig marketed• Cost per lb of gain• Cost per lb carcass sold• For Every 0.01 improvement in F:G will decrease total feed costs by $0.28-0.30/pig Boyd, 2008 Thank you! 29
  30. 30. Questions? Swine Nutrient Excretion Issues with DDGS• N excretion increases 15-200+% – Ammonia emissions?• P can be managed by decreases MCP/DCP• Increased DM excretion/Increased solids? Increased Sludge?• Crust formation? Flies? Ammonia?• Increased Sulfur – Hydrogen sulfide Emissions? 30
  31. 31. New Fractionation Processes willchange DDGS and it’s nutritional value • Degerming – Press the oil to human or Bio-diesel – Reduces oil and may reduce P • Dehulling – Reduces fiber • Seperation post-fermentation – Fiber and/or oil removed • Syrup levels used and fractioning or recycling Comparison of Conventional DDGS and Fractionated Products Conventional Fractionation Process Ethanol 2.8 gal 2.8 gal DDGS 17 lb 7 lb Germ --- 4 lb Fiber/ --- 4 lb hull Corn (2 lb) 2 lb Oil 31
  32. 32. Dakota Gold Products• Distillers wet Grains• Dakota Gold - DDGS• Dakota Gold – HP – Endosperm fraction• Corn Germ Dehydrated – Germ fraction• Dakota Bran – Fiber plus solubles in a wet cake, dry or pellet• Modified Distillers Grain• Corn Condensed Distillers Solubles• Using BPX™ and BFrac™ Technologies Dakota Gold Product Profiles (As Fed) DDGS DDGS Corn Dakota SBM, -HP Germ Branb 48% CPCP 26.6 41.0 15.6 13.7 47.5Lys 0.89 1.19 0.82 ? 3.02M+C 1.25 1.81 0.74 ? 1.41Thre 1.01 1.63 0.57 ? 1.85Tryp 0.28 0.36 0.20 ? 0.68Fat 9.7 3.0 17.8 8.1 0.5Fiber 6.1 6.9 5.1 ??? 3.4MEa 1647 1695 1844 ??? 1533Phos 0.79 0.37 1.40 0.61 0.69 a Corn ME = 1505 b only 52% DM 32
  33. 33. 33
  34. 34. Rapid Lab Tests for QualityStein, Pahm, and Pedersen, 2005• One-Step pepsin digest – R2 = 0.52• Two-Step pepsin-pancreatin digest – R2 = 0.79• Color – R2 = 0.53-0.67• KOH Solubility – R2 = 0.47• Furosine – R2 =0.71• Reactive lysine – R2 = 0.66• IDEA Value (Novus) vs. True Lys Dig. (Poultry) – R2 = 0.88• Urriola et al., 2007• Include Color, ADF, NDF, Hemicell., Starch (tot, insol, and sol.), Part. Size, Sol CP, CP, Insol CP – Dig. CP R2=.78-.80 – Dig. Lys R2= .57-.44 SBM vs DDGS • DDGS contains 57% of the protein of SBM – (27.3/47.5) • DDGS contains 28% of the total lysine of SBM – (.84/3.02) • DDGS contains 20% of the available lysine – (.52/2.57) • This is why it replaces a greater percentage of Corn in the diet than SBM in monogastric diets (65 Corn:22 SBM:11 Fat) + Lysine 34
  35. 35. Replacement ratio strategies with DDGS + Lysine• 65 Corn : 22 SBM : 11 Fat : 1 Dical – PU• 57.0 Corn : 42.5 SBM – Univ. ILL• 88.5 Corn : 10 SBM : 3 Dical – Univ. of Missouri• It comes down to the quality of DDGS and AA availability! 35

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