Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
Dr. Billy Flowers - Possible physiological benchmarks for sow longevity prior to puberty
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Dr. Billy Flowers - Possible physiological benchmarks for sow longevity prior to puberty

  • 226 views
Published

Possible physiological benchmarks for sow longevity prior to puberty - Dr. Billy Flowers, from the 2012 Allen D. Leman Swine Conference, September 15-18, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA. …

Possible physiological benchmarks for sow longevity prior to puberty - Dr. Billy Flowers, from the 2012 Allen D. Leman Swine Conference, September 15-18, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.

More presentations at http://www.swinecast.com/2012-leman-swine-conference-material

Published in Business
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
226
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
13
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Possible Physiological Benchmarks for Sow Longevity prior to Puberty W.L. Flowers North Carolina State University Raleigh, N.C.
  • 2. Developmental Period
  • 3. It would be useful if there were things we could measure during the developmental period that provide us with some idea of the longevity potential of prospective replacement females.
  • 4. The period just prior to birth is an active period offetal growth and ovarian development.Birth weight is positively correlated with organdevelopment.
  • 5. Relationships between Piglet Birth Weights and Organ Weights Small 0.24 Intestines Liver 0.20Organ Weight (lbs) 0.16 Brain 0.12 0.08 0.00 0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 Birth Weight (lbs) (Adapted from Foxcroft et al., 2009)
  • 6. Some aspects of fetal developmentprobably respond the same way to competition as pig growth in “crowded pens”. 12 developing fetuses 6 developing fetuses
  • 7. Birth weight probably is also positively related tothe development of reproductive organs.
  • 8. Birth Weight and Reproductive Performance of Gilts Piglet Birth Weight (lbs)ReproductivePerformance 2.0 – 2.8 > 3.5Age at puberty (days) 188 + 8 170 + 6Ovulation rate 12.9 + 0.6 15.3 + 0.7Embryonic survival (%) 69 + 7 83 + 6 (Flowers, unpublished)
  • 9. Birth Weight and Longevity from Neonatal Study• Study was conducted with 1820 gilts in an 80,000 sow commercial production system.• Only used litters that had between 10 and 14 pigs born alive.• Litter size was adjusted after birth to either < 7 pigs (n=899) or > 10 pigs (n=921).• Examined birth weight categories in only the sows that nursed > 10 pigs (n=921)
  • 10. Effect of Replacement Gilt Birth Weight on Sow Longevity 100Females remaining in production (%) 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 > 3.6 lbs E = Entry 20 B = Breeding - gilts 2.6 - 3.5 lbs 10 F = Farrowing < 2.5 lbs R = Rebreeding 0 E B F1 R1 F2 R2 F3 R3 F4 R4 F5 R5 F6 Production phase (Flowers, unpublished)
  • 11. There probably is a minimum birth weight belowwhich gilts simply don’t have the reproductivemachinery to function adequately as adults nomatter how well they are managed subsequently.
  • 12. While most of the follicles on the ovaries are presentat birth they begin to acquire their functionalcompetence during the next 30 days – most of whichoccurs during their nursing period.
  • 13. Birth Weaning (Morbeck et al. 1993)
  • 14. Producers have very little controlprospectively over birth weight, but can affect pre-weaning growth.
  • 15. Effect of Neonatal Litter Size on Sow Longevity• Study was conducted with 1820 gilts in an 80,000 sow commercial production system.• Only used litters that had between 10 and 14 pigs born alive.• Litter size was adjusted after birth to either < 7 pigs (n=899) or > 10 pigs (n=921).• Commercial farm used pen gestation and had average birth weights less than 3 lbs.
  • 16. > 10 pigs nursing < 7 pigs nursing
  • 17. Cross sectionof ovaries from a17-day old gilt fromlitter of > 10 pigsCross sectionof ovaries from a17-day old gilt fromlitter of < 7 pigs
  • 18. Effect of Neonatal Lactation Litter Size on Sow Longevity 100 * p < 0.05Females remaining in production (%) 90 80 * 70 * 60 * < 7 piglets * * 50 * * * 40 ** 30 E = Entry 20 B = Breeding - gilts 10 F = Farrowing R = Rebreeding > 10 piglets 0 E B F1 R1 F2 R2 F3 R3 F4 R4 F5 R5 F6 Production phase (Flowers et al., in press)
  • 19. Reproductive Performance and Neonatal Litter Size 100 12 90 11 80 10 70% mw N A BFegnoa n o e b u v)(r rti i l 60 9 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 Sow Parity Sow Parity < 7 piglets (88.7%) < 7 piglets (11.0 + 0.1) > 10 piglets (83.3%) > 10 piglets (10.5 + 0.2) p < 0.05 p < 0.07
  • 20. Reducing competition during the neonatal periodenhances early ovarian development which improvedlongevity.What can we measure during this period to accuratelyassess growth and development of gilts?
  • 21. Association of Growth Characteristics with LongevityGrowth Measures R2 P valueWeaning weight (lbs) 0.06 ( 6%) 0.14 (Flowers, unpublished)
  • 22. Association of Growth Characteristics with LongevityGrowth Measures R2 P valueWeaning weight (lbs) 0.06 ( 6%) 0.14Pre-weaning gain (lbs) 0.14 (14%) 0.04 (Flowers, unpublished)
  • 23. Association of Growth Characteristics with LongevityGrowth Measures R2 P valueWeaning weight (lbs) 0.06 ( 6%) 0.14Pre-weaning gain (lbs) 0.14 (14%) 0.04Pre-weaning gain /birth weight (Flowers, unpublished)
  • 24. Pre-weaning gain / birth weight Pig A Pig B Pig C Pig DBirth weight (lbs) 2.5 2.5 3.5 3.5Weaning weight (lbs) 16.5 22.5 16.5 17.5Pre-weaning growth (lbs) 14.0 20.0 13.5 14.0Pre-weaning growth / 5.6 8.0 3.8 4.0birth weight
  • 25. Association of Growth Characteristics with LongevityGrowth Measures R2 P valueWeaning weight (lbs) 0.06 ( 6%) 0.14Pre-weaning gain (lbs) 0.14 (14%) 0.04Pre-weaning gain / 0.22 (22%) 0.001birth weight (%) (Flowers, unpublished)
  • 26. Interactions between Birth Weight and Neonatal Litter Size 50Sows that produced 6 litters (%) 40 * < 7 piglets 30 > 10 piglets * 20 10 * p < 0.05 0 < 2.5 lbs 2.6 – 3.5 lbs > 3.6 lbs Birth Weight Categories (Flowers, unpublished)
  • 27. Association of Growth Characteristics with LongevityGrowth Measures R2 P valueWeaning weight (lbs) 0.06 ( 6%) 0.14Pre-weaning gain (lbs) 0.14 (14%) 0.04Pre-weaning gain / 0.22 (22%) 0.001birth weight (%)Total Growth 0.42 (42%)Other factors 0.58 (58%) (Flowers, unpublished)
  • 28. Pre-weaning growth and pre-weaning growth relativeto birth weight appear to have positive associationswith sow longevity and lifetime productivity
  • 29. The best physiological test for longevity would besomething that mimics what the mature sow askedrequired to do effectively each parity.
  • 30. + LH, FSHEstrogens
  • 31. 50 40 Boar Exposure 30 170 days 20 10 50 m G N E n o e b u s r t f l i 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 40 Days from Onset of Boar Exposure 30 20 Boar 10 ExposuremG 140 daysNEnoebusrtfli 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 Days from Onset of Boar Exposure 140 160 180 200 220
  • 32. Effect of Neonatal Environment on Female Response to Early Boar Exposure Neonatal EnvironmentVariables < 7 pigs > 10 pigsProportion of gilts in estrus 77.0* 53.028 days after exposure (%) †Average number born 11.3 10.8alive – early respondersAverage number born 10.3 10.2alive – late responders* p < 0.05 † p < 0.08 (Flowers et al., in press)
  • 33. Effect of Neonatal Lactation Litter Size on Sow Longevity 100 * p < 0.05Females remaining in production (%) 90 80 * 70 * 60 * < 7 piglets * * 50 * * * 40 ** 30 E = Entry 22% 20 B = Breeding - gilts 10 F = Farrowing R = Rebreeding > 10 piglets 0 E B F1 R1 F2 R2 F3 R3 F4 R4 F5 R5 F6 Production phase (Flowers et al., in press)
  • 34. 50 40 Boar Exposure 30 170 days 20 10 50 m G N E n o e b u s r t f l i 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 40 Days from Onset of Boar Exposure 30 20 Boar 10 ExposuremG 140 daysNEnoebusrtfli 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 Days from Onset of Boar Exposure 140 160 180 200 220
  • 35. LH, FSHEstrogens
  • 36. Effect of Neonatal Litter Size on Response to PG600 Gilts exhibiting vulvar swelling (%) 100 * 80 * < 7 piglets > 10 piglets 60 * *p < 0.05 40 20 0 80 100 120 140 160 Age of gilts (days)
  • 37. No responseat 140 days of agePositive responseat 140 days of age
  • 38. Strategic use of commercially available gonado-tropins might be a way to screen for gilts capableof early puberty without using a boar.
  • 39. Developmental Period
  • 40. Graduate Students Undergraduate StudentsDr. Jean Popwell Dr. Chad Smith Dr. Lauren JobDr. Brad Belstra Dr. Patrick O’QuinnJennifer Griffin Dr. Catherine HefleyDr. Kara StewartDr. Kyle Lovercamp Dr. Lisa ThompsonFrances Turner Kristey KenneySara Shute Nikhol GarbacikShelley Swing Stefani Garbacik
  • 41. Relationship between Number Born Alive and Litter Birth Weights 15Number Born Alive 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 0 10 20 30 40 50 Litter Birth Weight (lbs)
  • 42. Number Born Alive and Litter Birth Weights 2.5 lb birth weight Market animals ? 15 PotentialNumber Born Alive Replace- 14 ment gilts 13 12 11 10 9 8 0 10 20 30 40 50 Litter Birth Weight (lbs)
  • 43. Number Born Alive and Litter Birth Weights 2.5 lb birth 3.6 lb birth weight weight 15Number Born Alive Strategic 14 Crossfostering Replace- 13 ment gilts 12 11 10 9 8 0 10 20 30 40 50 Litter Birth Weight (lbs)
  • 44. Developmental Period Periodic assessment of management during development.