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Animal Genomics and Biotechnology EducationAnimal Genomics and Biotechnology EducationWhat role will animal biotechnologyp...
Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationConvention on Biological Diversity: ...
Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics Education
Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationRound Oak Rag Apple Elevation (born ...
Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationVan Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013Van Eene...
Van Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013Van Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013Resource use and waste outputs from modern US dairyproduction syst...
Van Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013Van Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013Average annual milk yield and carbon footprint per kgmilk - across...
Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationCurrent status of animal biotechnolo...
Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics Education
Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationGE Chickens That Dont TransmitBird F...
Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationOmega-3 PigsOmega-3 Pigs(Pigs cloned...
Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationMastitis-resistant cowsMastitis-resi...
Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationFast growing salmonThe founder femal...
Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics Education
Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationFish reach adult size in 16 to 18mon...
Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationTimeline of AquAdvantageregulatory p...
Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationSites working on GE livestock for fo...
Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationSites working on GE livestock for fo...
Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationMy basic question is thisMy basic qu...
Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationThere is no scientific case for a bl...
Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationGE process-based “equivalence” studi...
Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationUnintended effects have notUnintende...
Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationIt is time to reconnect the GEIt is ...
Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics Education• The trigger for regulatory review ...
Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationSome animal biotechnology applicatio...
Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics Education““the environmental movement has don...
“15 years after GMO cropswere first plantedcommercially in the UnitedStates, only two governmentsin Sub-Saharan Africa hav...
Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics Education““I now say that the world has the t...
Dr. Alison Van Eenennaam - What Role Will Animal Biotechnology Play in Feeding the World?
Dr. Alison Van Eenennaam - What Role Will Animal Biotechnology Play in Feeding the World?
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Dr. Alison Van Eenennaam - What Role Will Animal Biotechnology Play in Feeding the World?

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What Role Will Animal Biotechnology Play in Feeding the World? - Dr. Alison Van Eenennaam, Cooperative Extension Specialist, Animal Genomics & Biotechnology, Department of Animal Science, University of California - Davis, from the 2013 NIAA Merging Values and Technology conference, April 15-17, 2013, Louisville, KY, USA.

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  • There is a trade-off associated with the rapid dissemination of genetics through populations by AI, and that is a reduction in genetic diversity. A good example of the reproductive potential of an elite dairy bull comes from a bull named Elevation, born in 1965. He had over 80,000 daughters, 2.3 million granddaughters, and 6.5 million great-granddaughters (VanRaden, 2007). Such extensive use of small numbers of sire families has reduced the genetic diversity of the Holstein population. Intense selection leads to rapid genetic improvement, but it also reduces the relative number of parents or the effective population size. Worldwide, estimates of effective population size in Holsteins range from 100-150, despite the fact there are more than 3.7 million Holstein cows enrolled in milk recording in the USA. Reduced genetic diversity can cause a reduction in mean phenotypic performance as a result of inbreeding depression. This term refers to the decrease in fitness and vigour that result from the breeding of related individuals. One of the primary concerns related to inbreeding is reduced reproduction and fertility. It has been observed that dairy cow fertility has been declining at 1% per annum for several decades. For example, daughter pregnancy rate, a measure of how quickly cows become pregnant after having a calf, declined from 33% to 23% over the period from 1960 to 2007. As with many considerations associated with sustainability, some balance needs to be reached between the inherent conflict of accelerating the rate of genetic gain by increasing the intensity of selection on superior lines of cattle, and minimizing the rate of inbreeding
  • To put the impact of the genetic improvement enabled by AI in a sustainability perspective, consider that advances in the genetics, nutrition and management of US dairy cows over the last century have resulted in a greater than four-fold increase in milk production per cow, and a three-fold improvement in production efficiency (milk output per feed resource input; VandeHaar and St-Pierre, 2006). About half of this 369% increase in production efficiency is attributable to genetic improvement enabled by AI. As a result a much smaller population of dairy cows supplies the US market. The US dairy cattle population peaked in 1944 at an estimated 25.6 million animals with a total annual milk production of approximately 53.1 billion kg. In 1997, dairy cattle numbers had declined to 9.2 million animals and total annual production was estimated at 70.8 billion kg. The advent of frozen semen also dramatically curtailed the number of natural service dairy bulls on farms which further lessened the inputs required to produce a unit of milk (Capper et al. , 2009) The 2007 dairy industry therefore produced 84.2 billion kg of milk with a national herd containing only 9.2 million dairy cattle (and 89.0 billion kg of milk from the same number of cattle in 2011) compared with 53.0 billion kg of milk from 25.6 million head in 1944.
  • The 2007 dairy industry therefore produced 84.2 billion kg of milk with a national herd containing only 9.2 million dairy cattle (and 89.0 billion kg of milk from the same number of cattle in 2011) compared with 53.0 billion kg of milk from 25.6 million head in 1944. In combination with advances in crop productivity over this time period, feed use per unit of milk was reduced by 77%, land use by 90%, water use by 65%, and manure production by 76% ( Figure 2 ). The carbon footprint of a kg of milk in 2007 was 63% lower than that in 1944 (1.35 kg CO 2 -eq compared to 3.66 kg CO 2 -eq), and the total dairy industry carbon footprint (with the boundary of the farm gate) was reduced by 41%, despite the substantial increase in milk production (26). NIAA 4/16/2013 Alison Van Eenennaam
  • If environmental sustainability were the only consideration, the FAO data could provoke the conclusion that all regions should adopt North American– and Western European–style production systems, or that dairying should be focused in these areas and discouraged in less-productive regions such as sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. However, the significant social (both status and nutritional) and economic value of dairying in less-developed regions must not be underestimated. The challenge for global dairy production is to improve productivity and optimize sustainability within each region rather than prescribe one-size-fits-all production systems or management practices Annual average milk yield per cow has increased from 1,890 kg in 1924, when USDA dairy production record keeping began, to 9,682 kg in 2011 (19), and the current record-holding cow (named Ever-Green-View My 1326) produced over 32,800 kg. Translation Genomics SMO Genomics Alison Van Eenennaam
  • First, if biotechnologies are to be adopted they should build upon existing conventional technologies. Most biotechnologies cannot be fully exploited in livestock unless a basic level of technical capacity and infrastructure is already present. Second, biotechnologies should be integrated with other relevant components of livestock production. As demonstrated in the case studies, the application of biotechnologies should complement other components of the livestock production and marketing system to elicit the desired result. Third, the application of biotechnologies should be supported within the framework of a national livestock development programme. Potential use of biotechnologies in livestock development should be driven by the goal of tackling problems such as food insecurity and rural poverty, rather than on the desire to impose a biotechnological solution for its own sake. Fourth, it should be borne in mind that the target end users of these biotechnologies are normally resource-poor farmers with limited purchasing power, so appropriate models are needed to ensure that the eventual biotechnology products are accessible to them.
  • While regulation to ensure the safety of new crop varieties is necessary, in a world facing burgeoning demands on agriculture from population growth, economic growth, and climate change, overregulation is an indulgence we can ill afford
  • In addition, although there is no evidence that more food safety testing is necessary for GE crops, one can predict that a “whatever is possible should be done” policy will push for the use of omics technologies in their mandatory assessment.
  • Whether GE livestock fit in with sustainability goals will be greatly dependent upon the BO and production system. However some GE livestock applications (e.g. disease resistance) would seem to align with many sustainability goals, such as improving animal well-being. Infectious diseases have major negative effects on poultry and livestock production, both in terms of economics and animal welfare. The costs of disease are estimated to be 35-50% of turnover in developing countries and 17% in the developed world. Improving animal health using GE has the added benefit of reducing the need for veterinary interventions and the use of antibiotics and other medicinal treatments. Efforts are underway to generate resistance in cattle which is a major problem for beef and dairy population in East Africa (Willyard, 2011). GE could also provide a humane method for sex selection in dairy and egg industries, where females provide the animal product (i.e. milk and eggs). Gene supplementation that feminizes male embryos (Smith et al. , 2009) or eliminates the production of male sperm in sires (Herrmann et al. , 1999) is technically feasible; the latter approach has the desirable outcome that the animals that are produced are not themselves GE (Fahrenkrug et al. , 2010). This change to sex-biased or sex-specific production of offspring would have the additional advantage of increasing overall efficiency of the production system (Hume et al. , 2011).
  • Whether GE livestock fit in with sustainability goals will be greatly dependent upon the BO and production system. However some GE livestock applications (e.g. disease resistance) would seem to align with many sustainability goals, such as improving animal well-being. Infectious diseases have major negative effects on poultry and livestock production, both in terms of economics and animal welfare. The costs of disease are estimated to be 35-50% of turnover in developing countries and 17% in the developed world. Improving animal health using GE has the added benefit of reducing the need for veterinary interventions and the use of antibiotics and other medicinal treatments. Efforts are underway to generate resistance in cattle which is a major problem for beef and dairy population in East Africa (Willyard, 2011). GE could also provide a humane method for sex selection in dairy and egg industries, where females provide the animal product (i.e. milk and eggs). Gene supplementation that feminizes male embryos (Smith et al. , 2009) or eliminates the production of male sperm in sires (Herrmann et al. , 1999) is technically feasible; the latter approach has the desirable outcome that the animals that are produced are not themselves GE (Fahrenkrug et al. , 2010). This change to sex-biased or sex-specific production of offspring would have the additional advantage of increasing overall efficiency of the production system (Hume et al. , 2011).
  • Transcript of "Dr. Alison Van Eenennaam - What Role Will Animal Biotechnology Play in Feeding the World?"

    1. 1. Animal Genomics and Biotechnology EducationAnimal Genomics and Biotechnology EducationWhat role will animal biotechnologyplay in feeding the world?Alison Van Eenennaam Ph.D.Alison Van Eenennaam Ph.D.Cooperative Extension SpecialistCooperative Extension SpecialistAnimal Biotechnology and GenomicsAnimal Biotechnology and GenomicsDepartment of Animal ScienceDepartment of Animal ScienceUniversity of California, DavisUniversity of California, Davisalvaneenennaam@ucdavis.edualvaneenennaam@ucdavis.eduhttp://animalscience.ucdavis.edu/animalbiotechhttp://animalscience.ucdavis.edu/animalbiotech“The mission of the animalgenomics and biotechnologyextension program is to providebroad, science-based extensionprogramming on the uses of animalbiotechnologies in livestockproduction systems.”
    2. 2. Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationConvention on Biological Diversity: “Convention on Biological Diversity: “BiotechnologyBiotechnology isisany technological application that uses biologicalany technological application that uses biologicalsystems, living organisms or derivatives thereof tosystems, living organisms or derivatives thereof tomake or modify products or processes for specific use.”make or modify products or processes for specific use.”Van Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013Van Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013Genetics/breedingNutrition HealthArtificial insemination Feed additives: Amino acids,enzymes & probioticsMolecular diagnosticsProgesterone monitoring Prebiotics Recombinant vaccinesEstrus synchronization Silage additives (enzymes andmicrobial inoculants)Conventional vaccinesInvito fetilization andembryo transferIonophores Sterile insect technique(SIT)Molecular markers;genomic selectionSingle cell proteins BioinformaticsCryopreservation Solid state fermentation oflignocellulosicsSemen and embryo sexing Recombinant somatotropins GREEN = Potential forgenerating impact(time frame <10 years)Cloning Molecular gut microbiologyTransgenesisOrtiz, Rodomiro. 2010. Agricultural Biotechnologies in Developing Countries: Options and Opportunities in Crops,Forestry, Livestock, Fisheries and Agro-Industry to Face the Challenges of Food Insecurity and Climate Change.
    3. 3. Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics Education
    4. 4. Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationRound Oak Rag Apple Elevation (born 1965)>80,000 daughters, 2.3 million granddaughters,and 6.5 million great-granddaughtersVan Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013Van Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013VanRaden, P.M. (2007). Improving Animals Each Generation by Selecting from the Best GeneSources. Available: http://aipl.arsusda.gov/publish/other/2007/Duke07_pvr.pdf.
    5. 5. Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationVan Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013Van Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/20131944: 25.6 million animals; total annual milk production of 53.1 billionkg. 1997: 9.2 million animals; total annual milk production of 84.2billion kg.About half of this 369% increase in production efficiencyis attributable to genetic improvement enabled by AIVandeHaar, M.J. and St-Pierre, N. (2006). Major Advances in Nutrition: Relevance to theSustainability of the Dairy Industry. Journal of Dairy Science 89, 1280-1291.AI
    6. 6. Van Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013Van Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013Resource use and waste outputs from modern US dairyproduction systems typical of the year 2007, compared withhistorical US dairying (characteristic of the year 1944).GHG = Greenhousegas
    7. 7. Van Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013Van Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013Average annual milk yield and carbon footprint per kgmilk - across global regions. Data adapted from FAO.,
    8. 8. Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationCurrent status of animal biotechnologiesand factors influencing their applicabilityin developing countries - GENETICSVan Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013Van Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013Extent ofusePublic andgovernmentacceptanceCurrenttechnicalcapabilityfor usingtechnologyInfrastructureand materialsand toolsavailable forusingtechnologyRelativecostSkillsrequired forapplicationPotential forgeneratingimpact (timeframe <10years)ARTIFICIALINSEMINATION ++ +++ ++ ++ ++ ++ +++PROGESTERONEMONITORING + +++ + + ++ ++ ++ESTRUSSYNCHRONIZATION + +++ + + ++ ++ ++IN VITROFERTILIZATION/EMBRYO TRANSFER+ +++ + + +++ +++ ++MOLECULARMARKERS + +++ + + ++ +++ +CRYOPRESERVATION+ +++ ++ + ++ +++ ++SEMEN AND EMBRYOSEXING + +++ + + +++ ++ ++CLONING+ + + + +++ +++ +TRANSGENESIS/GE0 + + + +++ +++ +
    9. 9. Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics Education
    10. 10. Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationGE Chickens That Dont TransmitBird FluBreakthrough could prevent future bird flu epidemicswww.roslin.ed.ac.uk/public-interest/gm-chickenswww.roslin.ed.ac.uk/public-interest/gm-chickensScience 331:223-226.2011Van Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013Van Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013
    11. 11. Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationOmega-3 PigsOmega-3 Pigs(Pigs cloned after genetically engineering cell)(Pigs cloned after genetically engineering cell)Nature Biotechnology 24:435-436. 2006University of Missouri/University of Missouri/Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard MedicalSchoolVan Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013Van Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013
    12. 12. Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationMastitis-resistant cowsMastitis-resistant cows(inflammation of mammary gland)(inflammation of mammary gland)Nature Biotechnology 23:445-451. 2005www.ars.usda.govwww.ars.usda.govVan Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013Van Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013
    13. 13. Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationFast growing salmonThe founder female was generated in 1989 ~ a quarter century agoNature Biotechnology 10:176 – 181. 1992University of Toronto/Memorial University of Newfoundland,University of Toronto/Memorial University of Newfoundland,CanadaCanadaVan Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013Van Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013
    14. 14. Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics Education
    15. 15. Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationFish reach adult size in 16 to 18months instead of 30 monthsVan Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013Van Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013
    16. 16. Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationTimeline of AquAdvantageregulatory processYear Event1989 • Founder AquAdvantage fish produced in Canada1995 • FDA review of AquAdvantage salmon begins2001 • First regulatory study submitted by Aqua BountyTechnologies to U.S. FDA for a New Animal DrugApplications (NADA)2009 • FDA guidance on how GE animals will be regulated• FDA approval of first GE animal pharmaceutical• Final AquAdvantage regulatory study submitted to FDA2010 • FDA VMAC meeting on AquAdvantage salmon (9/20/10)2011 • Political efforts to prevent FDA from regulating GE salmon2013 • AquaBounty has expended over $60 million to bringthe AquAdvantage salmon through the regulatoryapproval process thus far (D. Frank, CFO, AquaBounty, pers.comm.)• Still waiting for regulatory decision on AquAdvantage salmon• Delayed approvals diminishing US investment in GE animals24+yearsfromdiscoverytoapplication?Van Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013Van Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013
    17. 17. Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationSites working on GE livestock for food – 1985North America, Europe and AustralasiaVan Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013Van Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013
    18. 18. Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationSites working on GE livestock for food - 2012Asia and South America are moving forwardwith this technology in their animal agricultureVan Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013Van Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013
    19. 19. Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationMy basic question is thisMy basic question is this● The first genetically engineered (GE) crops came to the market in 1986The first genetically engineered (GE) crops came to the market in 1986● In 2012In 2012 17.3 million17.3 million farmers grew GE crop varieties on > 170 millionfarmers grew GE crop varieties on > 170 millionhectares, and of these > 90% (15 million) were small, resource-poorhectares, and of these > 90% (15 million) were small, resource-poorfarmers in developing countriesfarmers in developing countries● Humans and livestock have consumed billions of meals without a singleHumans and livestock have consumed billions of meals without a singlecase of harm attributable to the GE nature of the materials consumedcase of harm attributable to the GE nature of the materials consumed● Currently products developed though the process of GE are singled outCurrently products developed though the process of GE are singled outand uniquely required to go through regulatory approvaland uniquely required to go through regulatory approval● These regulatory policies add years and millions of dollars to the cost ofThese regulatory policies add years and millions of dollars to the cost ofdeveloping GE crops and animalsdeveloping GE crops and animals● Is this level of scrutiny aligned to science-based risks associatedIs this level of scrutiny aligned to science-based risks associatedwith this technology, or is this overabundance of precautionwith this technology, or is this overabundance of precautionmaking the deployment of this valuable technology beyond themaking the deployment of this valuable technology beyond themeans of all but the largest, multinational corporations, to themeans of all but the largest, multinational corporations, to thedetriment of food security globally?detriment of food security globally?Van Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013Van Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013
    20. 20. Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationThere is no scientific case for a blanketThere is no scientific case for a blanketapproval of all uses of GE. But equally there isapproval of all uses of GE. But equally there isno scientific case for contrived safety testingno scientific case for contrived safety testingThere is always the issue of novel proteins or compoundsThere is always the issue of novel proteins or compoundswith no history of safe use. These will always have to bewith no history of safe use. These will always have to betested for toxicity and allergenicity– be they introduced bytested for toxicity and allergenicity– be they introduced byGE or conventional breeding techniques.GE or conventional breeding techniques.The bulk of safety testing and expense is to detectThe bulk of safety testing and expense is to detect“unintended” changes specifically resulting from GE“unintended” changes specifically resulting from GEItIt is continued testing using ever more-expensive techniquesis continued testing using ever more-expensive techniquesincluding emerging “omics” for these “including emerging “omics” for these “unexpected” unintendedunexpected” unintendedeffects of GEeffects of GE that is scientifically dubious as the biologicalthat is scientifically dubious as the biologicalrelevance of a statistically significant compositional change isrelevance of a statistically significant compositional change isunclear – especially in the absence of data for conventional food.unclear – especially in the absence of data for conventional food.Van Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013Van Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013
    21. 21. Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationGE process-based “equivalence” studiesuniquely required for GE can no longerjustified on the basis of scientific uncertaintyHerman RA, Price WD. 2013. Unintended Compositional Changes in Genetically Modified(GM) Crops: 20 Years of Research. J Agric Food Chem. 2013 Feb 25.
    22. 22. Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationUnintended effects have notUnintended effects have notmaterializedmaterializedIt seems more scientifically defensible to be able to stateIt seems more scientifically defensible to be able to statethat certain likely effects (e.g. novel allergens and toxins,that certain likely effects (e.g. novel allergens and toxins,positional insertion effects) have been assessed andpositional insertion effects) have been assessed andfound absent, than to admit that one did not know quitefound absent, than to admit that one did not know quitewhat to look for – but found it absent neverthelesswhat to look for – but found it absent nevertheless“Skeptics who remain fearful sometimes respond that“absence of evidence is not the same thing as evidenceof absence”. Yet if you look for something for 15 yearsand fail to find it, that must surely be accepted asevidence of absence. It is not proof that risks are absent,but proving that something is absent (proving a negative)is always logically impossible*”* Paarlberg, R. 2010. GMO foods and crops: Africas choice. New Biotechnology 27:609-613Van Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013Van Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013
    23. 23. Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationIt is time to reconnect the GEIt is time to reconnect the GEregulatory framework to the bestregulatory framework to the bestavailable scienceavailable science“Historically, risks to the environment presented by crop plantsare low. In these projects, we think what we need to do is tocollect scientific data and understand the scientific basis for safeuse of GMO products..... We are not trying to prove how risky itmay be by strange imagination or by inventing some specialphenomena that do not occur in nature.”Jia S, Peng Y. 2002. GMO biosafety research in China. Environ Biosafety Res. 2002 1(1):5-8.Van Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013Van Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013How can $60 million be warranted to bring a fast-growingfish to market, when conventional fish (and other animal)breeders routinely develop all manner of fast-growinganimals that are associated with the same set of risks?
    24. 24. Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics Education• The trigger for regulatory review should be the novelty of the introducedtrait (regardless of how or when it was derived), and not the processused to introduce the trait• The severity of regulatory control should be directly related to the actual,relative risk associated with the novel characteristic (phenotype)• Phenotypes with a history of safe use should be exempted fromregulatory review regardless of the methods used to produce them• Regulatory frameworks should formally evaluate thereasonable and unique risks associated with the use of GEanimals in agricultural systems, and weigh them againstthose associated with existing conventional systems, andthose of inaction (i.e. postponing a regulatory decision).Perhaps more importantly these risks have to be weighedagainst the benefits.GE regulatory burdens are not justified by scientific evidence orexperience. While regulation to ensure the safety of newtechnologies is necessary, in a world facing burgeoningdemands on agriculture from population growth, economicgrowth, and climate change, overregulation is an indulgence wecan ill afford.Giddings, V., Stepp, M. and M.E. Caine. 2013. Feeding the Planet in a Warming Worldhttp://www.itif.org/publications/feeding-planet-warming-world
    25. 25. Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationSome animal biotechnology applications, including GEanimals, would seem to align with many sustainabilitygoals including improving animal well-being – will theybe permitted to do so given current regulatory policy?• Naturally polled cattle• Trypanosome resistance• Sex selection for ♀ indairy and egg industries
    26. 26. Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics Education““the environmental movement has donethe environmental movement has donemore harm with its opposition to geneticmore harm with its opposition to geneticengineering than with any other thingengineering than with any other thingwe’ve been wrong about...We’vewe’ve been wrong about...We’vestarved people, hindered science, hurtstarved people, hindered science, hurtthe natural environment, and denied ourthe natural environment, and denied ourown practitioners a crucial tool”own practitioners a crucial tool”Mark Lynas, Lecture to Oxford Farming Conference, 1/3/2013.http://www.marklynas.org/2013/01/lecture-to-oxford-farming-conference-3-january-2013/MARK LYNAS –formerly one of the moststrident opponents ofGE crops and foodVan Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013Van Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013
    27. 27. “15 years after GMO cropswere first plantedcommercially in the UnitedStates, only two governmentsin Sub-Saharan Africa havegiven a commercial release toany GMO crops, the Republicof South Africa (for maize,soybean, and cotton), andBurkina Faso (only for cotton).”Allows commercialplanting of biotech cropsAllows import of biotechcrops for food and/or feedCruz, Von Mark. V. and R.A. Hautea. 2011. Global scenarioon crop biotechnology: Communication setting. pp. 1-25.In M.J. Navarro and R.A. Hautea (eds.) Communicationchallenges and convergence in crop biodiversity. ISAAA andSEARCA, Los Baños, Philippines. Book Chapter.
    28. 28. Animal Biotechnology and Genomics EducationAnimal Biotechnology and Genomics Education““I now say that the world has the technology —I now say that the world has the technology —either available or well advanced in the researcheither available or well advanced in the researchpipeline — to feed on a sustainable basis apipeline — to feed on a sustainable basis apopulation of 10 billion people. The more pertinentpopulation of 10 billion people. The more pertinentquestion today is whether farmers and ranchers willquestion today is whether farmers and ranchers willbe permitted to use this new technology? While thebe permitted to use this new technology? While theaffluent nations can certainly afford to adopt ultraaffluent nations can certainly afford to adopt ultralow-risk positions, and pay more for food producedlow-risk positions, and pay more for food producedby the so-called ‘organic’ methods, the one billionby the so-called ‘organic’ methods, the one billionchronically undernourished people of the lowchronically undernourished people of the lowincome, food-deficit nations cannotincome, food-deficit nations cannot.”.”Norman BorlaugVan Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013Van Eenennaam NIAA 4/16/2013
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