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Behavioralapproaches

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  • 1. Theories of Counseling: Behavioral Approaches
    • PowerPoint produced by Melinda Haley, M.S., New Mexico State University.
    • “ This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law:
    • any public performance or display, including transmission of an image over a network;
    • preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images;
    • any rental, lease, or lending of the program.”
    • “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  • 2. Behavioral Approaches
    • Development of Behavioral Approaches
            • John Locke: Blank Slate
      • John Watson: Learned Neuroses
      • B. F. Skinner: Operant Conditioning
      • Ivan Pavlov: Classical Conditioning
    • “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  • 3. Behavioral Approaches
    • Basic Principles
      • Reinforcement: Rewards and Punishments.
      • Shaping: Working with small, incremental changes.
      • Measurement: Objective, measurable outcomes.
      • Action: Dwells more on behaviors than thoughts.
    • “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  • 4. Behavioral Approaches
    • Albert Ellis/Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)
    • Theoretical Constructs and Techniques
      • Focuses on dysfunctional, irrational, unrealistic and distorted thoughts.
      • Feelings and behavior are also addressed.
      • Unconditional acceptance is important.
      • Ellis also believed in authenticity.
      • Clients are encouraged to think rationally.
    • “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  • 5. Behavioral Approaches
    • Albert Ellis/Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)
    • Philosophy and Beliefs
      • Understanding belief systems is important.
      • Belief systems are organized ways of thinking about reality.
      • Belief systems affect one’s self-view.
      • The language a client uses, will speak to their philosophy and belief system.
      • “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  • 6. Behavioral Approaches
    • Albert Ellis/Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)
    • Philosophy and Beliefs (continued)
      • Clients create their own emotional disturbances by believing in absolute and irrational beliefs.
      • Clients can choose their belief system.
      • Counselors can help clients by identifying irrational beliefs and helping the client find meaning in their lives.
    • “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
    Beliefs
  • 7. Behavioral Approaches
    • Albert Ellis/Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)
    • Identifying Irrational Thinking
      • Helpless thinking is the result of irrational thinking.
      • It usually includes “all or nothing” statements.
      • It usually includes the words should, ought, never and must.
    • “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  • 8. Behavioral Approaches
    • Albert Ellis/Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)
    • Identifying Irrational Thinking (continued)
      • Five common irrational or dysfunctional ideas:
        • “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
        • “ Life isn’t fair.”
        • “ It’s awful.”
        • “ I can’t stand it.”
        • “ I must get what I want.”
        • “ I’m incompetent.”
  • 9. Behavioral Approaches
    • Albert Ellis/Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)
    • A-B-C-D-E-F
    • A = The activating event.
    • B = The irrational belief about the event.
    • C = The emotional consequence.
    • D = Disputing the irrational beliefs.
    • E = The emotional effect of disputing the belief.
    • F = New feelings and behavior.
    • “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  • 10. Behavioral Approaches
    • Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy and Multiculturalism
      • The therapy fails to address contextual-situational factors that adversely impact client’s lives.
      • REBT uses the ethnocentric approach to mental health care.
      • Does not focus on the phenomenological experience of the client.
      • Does not address the different ways irrational beliefs are manifested by the culturally different.
    • “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  • 11. Behavioral Approaches
    • William Glasser/Reality Therapy/Choice Theory
    • The Basics
      • Instead of seeking to change behavior, Reality Therapy works on changing awareness of responsibility.
      • Once responsibility is acknowledged by the client, it is then possible to work on behavior change.
      • The locus of the decision is placed on the client.
    • “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  • 12. Behavioral Approaches
    • William Glasser/Reality Therapy/Choice Theory
    • The Basics
      • The Reality therapist might borrow skills, techniques or ideas from other theories if it benefits the client.
      • The Reality therapist will be himself or herself, use humor, sarcasm and confrontation in personal ways to assist the client in greater understanding.
      • Role-playing, systematic planning, and teaching intentional living are all important in Reality Therapy.
    • “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  • 13. Behavioral Approaches
    • William Glasser/Reality Therapy/Choice Theory
    • The Basics
      • The client has control over his or her life, choices and personhood.
      • There is no need to explore a client’s past because the past is over and the client’s problems occur in the present.
      • Reality therapy puts the power into the client’s hands and shows the client how he or she can help himself or herself.
    • “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
    Power
  • 14. Behavioral Approaches
    • William Glasser/Reality Therapy/Choice Theory
    • The Basics
      • The client and counselor explores the client’s wants and needs.
      • It focuses on conscious, planned behavior.
      • The therapy focuses on responsibility and choice.
      • Trust and the relationship between client and counselor are critical.
      • “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  • 15. Behavioral Approaches
    • William Glasser/Reality Therapy/Choice Theory
    • The Basics
      • Since it is often used in institutions, the counselor’s communication of trust, warmth, respect and caring is especially important.
      • Reality therapy helps clients look at the consequences of their own actions.
      • This therapy is often used in settings other than the counseling office (e.g. playground or detention center) and is practiced by those other than counselors (e.g. teacher and prison guard).
      • “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
    Consequences
  • 16. Behavioral Approaches
    • William Glasser/Reality Therapy//Choice Theory
    • Cognitive Aspects of Reality Therapy
      • Reality therapy aids the client in examining the types of thoughts he or she has about himself or herself and the external world.
      • It helps clients exert control over their own actions, lives, choices and feelings.
      • Clients choose misery and symptoms. This becomes a way a client has of dealing with the world (e.g. depressing, headaching).
      • “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
    Thoughts
  • 17. Behavioral Approaches
    • William Glasser/Reality Therapy/Choice Theory
    • Cognitive Aspects of Reality Therapy
      • There are negative additions (e.g. drugs, stealing) and positive addictions (e.g. walking, meditation).
      • We choose our addictions and therefore our fate.
      • Reality therapy helps clients to: Explore their wants and how that relates to their needs; look at what they are doing to meet those needs; evaluate behaviors in relationship to those needs and helps the client plan to change behavior to more effectively meet needs.
      • “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  • 18. Behavioral Approaches
    • William Glasser/Reality Therapy/Choice Theory
    • Cognitive Aspects of Reality Therapy
      • There are negative additions (e.g. drugs, stealing) and positive addictions (e.g. walking, meditation).
      • We choose our addictions and therefore our fate.
      • Reality therapy helps clients to: Explore their wants and how that relates to their needs; look at what they are doing to meet those needs; evaluate behaviors in relationship to those needs and helps the client plan to change behavior to more effectively meet needs.
      • “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  • 19. Behavioral Approaches
    • Reality Therapy and Multiculturalism
      • Many of the tenets of Reality therapy fits well with other cultures.
      • Helping the client explore wants and needs keeps the focus on the client’s values and concerns within the client’s cultural context.
      • Reality therapy challenges the client to see the self in relationship to his or her context. This includes the client’s cultural context.
      • “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  • 20. Behavioral Approaches
    • Donald Meichenbaum’s Ten Central Tenets of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
    • Behavior is reciprocal between a client’s thoughts, feelings, psychological processes and resultant consequences.
    • Cognitions do not cause emotional difficulty.
    • Counselors help clients understand how they construct and construe reality.
    • CBT therapists dissuade from the rationalist or objectivist position.
    • There is an emphasis on collaboration with the client.
    • “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  • 21. Behavioral Approaches
    • Donald Meichenbaum’s Ten Central Tenets of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (continued)
    • Relapse prevention is central to cognitive behavioral therapy.
    • The client/therapist relationship is critical for change to occur.
    • Emotions play a critical role in cognitive-behavioral therapy.
    • CBT is used with couples and families.
    • CBT can be used in a variety of setting with a variety of issues.
    • “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  • 22. Behavioral Approaches
    • Applied Behavioral Analysis: Central Constructs
      • Client-counselor relationship is imperative and counselors exhibit high levels of empathy, self-congruence and interpersonal contact. The relationship is collaborative and relationship variables differ according to client and culture.
      • Operationalization of Behavior: Focuses on the concreteness and specifics of behavior. Vagueness is transformed into objective, observable actions.
      • Functional Analysis: The ABC’s of behavior. An individual's behavior is directly related to events and stimuli in the environment.
    • “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  • 23. Behavioral Approaches
    • Applied Behavioral Analysis: Central Constructs
      • Reinforcement: Behavior develops and maintains itself through a system of punishments and rewards.
      • Goals: These are designed to make specific behavioral changes. Goals are concrete, specific, observable and measurable.
    • “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  • 24. Resources
    • Ivey, A. E., D’Andrea, M., Ivey, M. B. and Morgan, L. S. (2002). Theories of counseling
    • and psychotherapy: A multicultural perspective, 5 th ed. Boston, MA.: Allyn &
    • Bacon.
    • James, R. K. & Gilliland, B. E. (2003). Theories and strategies in counseling and
    • psychotherapy, 5 th ed. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    • Kottler, J. A. (2002). Theories in counseling and therapy: An experiential approach.
    • Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    • “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”