Behavioralapproaches

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Behavioralapproaches

  1. 1. Theories of Counseling: Behavioral Approaches <ul><li>PowerPoint produced by Melinda Haley, M.S., New Mexico State University. </li></ul><ul><li>“ This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: </li></ul><ul><li>any public performance or display, including transmission of an image over a network; </li></ul><ul><li>preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images; </li></ul><ul><li>any rental, lease, or lending of the program.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” </li></ul>
  2. 2. Behavioral Approaches <ul><li>Development of Behavioral Approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>John Locke: Blank Slate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John Watson: Learned Neuroses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. F. Skinner: Operant Conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ivan Pavlov: Classical Conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” </li></ul>
  3. 3. Behavioral Approaches <ul><li>Basic Principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcement: Rewards and Punishments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shaping: Working with small, incremental changes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement: Objective, measurable outcomes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action: Dwells more on behaviors than thoughts. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” </li></ul>
  4. 4. Behavioral Approaches <ul><li>Albert Ellis/Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical Constructs and Techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on dysfunctional, irrational, unrealistic and distorted thoughts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings and behavior are also addressed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconditional acceptance is important. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ellis also believed in authenticity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clients are encouraged to think rationally. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” </li></ul>
  5. 5. Behavioral Approaches <ul><li>Albert Ellis/Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy and Beliefs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding belief systems is important. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belief systems are organized ways of thinking about reality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belief systems affect one’s self-view. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The language a client uses, will speak to their philosophy and belief system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Behavioral Approaches <ul><li>Albert Ellis/Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy and Beliefs (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clients create their own emotional disturbances by believing in absolute and irrational beliefs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clients can choose their belief system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counselors can help clients by identifying irrational beliefs and helping the client find meaning in their lives. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” </li></ul>Beliefs
  7. 7. Behavioral Approaches <ul><li>Albert Ellis/Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying Irrational Thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helpless thinking is the result of irrational thinking. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It usually includes “all or nothing” statements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It usually includes the words should, ought, never and must. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” </li></ul>
  8. 8. Behavioral Approaches <ul><li>Albert Ellis/Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying Irrational Thinking (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Five common irrational or dysfunctional ideas: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Life isn’t fair.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ It’s awful.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ I can’t stand it.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ I must get what I want.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ I’m incompetent.” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Behavioral Approaches <ul><li>Albert Ellis/Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) </li></ul><ul><li>A-B-C-D-E-F </li></ul><ul><li>A = The activating event. </li></ul><ul><li>B = The irrational belief about the event. </li></ul><ul><li>C = The emotional consequence. </li></ul><ul><li>D = Disputing the irrational beliefs. </li></ul><ul><li>E = The emotional effect of disputing the belief. </li></ul><ul><li>F = New feelings and behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” </li></ul>
  10. 10. Behavioral Approaches <ul><li>Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy and Multiculturalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The therapy fails to address contextual-situational factors that adversely impact client’s lives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>REBT uses the ethnocentric approach to mental health care. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not focus on the phenomenological experience of the client. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not address the different ways irrational beliefs are manifested by the culturally different. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” </li></ul>
  11. 11. Behavioral Approaches <ul><li>William Glasser/Reality Therapy/Choice Theory </li></ul><ul><li>The Basics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instead of seeking to change behavior, Reality Therapy works on changing awareness of responsibility. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once responsibility is acknowledged by the client, it is then possible to work on behavior change. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The locus of the decision is placed on the client. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” </li></ul>
  12. 12. Behavioral Approaches <ul><li>William Glasser/Reality Therapy/Choice Theory </li></ul><ul><li>The Basics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Reality therapist might borrow skills, techniques or ideas from other theories if it benefits the client. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Reality therapist will be himself or herself, use humor, sarcasm and confrontation in personal ways to assist the client in greater understanding. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role-playing, systematic planning, and teaching intentional living are all important in Reality Therapy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” </li></ul>
  13. 13. Behavioral Approaches <ul><li>William Glasser/Reality Therapy/Choice Theory </li></ul><ul><li>The Basics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The client has control over his or her life, choices and personhood. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is no need to explore a client’s past because the past is over and the client’s problems occur in the present. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reality therapy puts the power into the client’s hands and shows the client how he or she can help himself or herself. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” </li></ul>Power
  14. 14. Behavioral Approaches <ul><li>William Glasser/Reality Therapy/Choice Theory </li></ul><ul><li>The Basics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The client and counselor explores the client’s wants and needs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It focuses on conscious, planned behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The therapy focuses on responsibility and choice. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trust and the relationship between client and counselor are critical. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Behavioral Approaches <ul><li>William Glasser/Reality Therapy/Choice Theory </li></ul><ul><li>The Basics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Since it is often used in institutions, the counselor’s communication of trust, warmth, respect and caring is especially important. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reality therapy helps clients look at the consequences of their own actions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This therapy is often used in settings other than the counseling office (e.g. playground or detention center) and is practiced by those other than counselors (e.g. teacher and prison guard). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” </li></ul></ul>Consequences
  16. 16. Behavioral Approaches <ul><li>William Glasser/Reality Therapy//Choice Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Aspects of Reality Therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reality therapy aids the client in examining the types of thoughts he or she has about himself or herself and the external world. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It helps clients exert control over their own actions, lives, choices and feelings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clients choose misery and symptoms. This becomes a way a client has of dealing with the world (e.g. depressing, headaching). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” </li></ul></ul>Thoughts
  17. 17. Behavioral Approaches <ul><li>William Glasser/Reality Therapy/Choice Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Aspects of Reality Therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are negative additions (e.g. drugs, stealing) and positive addictions (e.g. walking, meditation). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We choose our addictions and therefore our fate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reality therapy helps clients to: Explore their wants and how that relates to their needs; look at what they are doing to meet those needs; evaluate behaviors in relationship to those needs and helps the client plan to change behavior to more effectively meet needs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Behavioral Approaches <ul><li>William Glasser/Reality Therapy/Choice Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Aspects of Reality Therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are negative additions (e.g. drugs, stealing) and positive addictions (e.g. walking, meditation). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We choose our addictions and therefore our fate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reality therapy helps clients to: Explore their wants and how that relates to their needs; look at what they are doing to meet those needs; evaluate behaviors in relationship to those needs and helps the client plan to change behavior to more effectively meet needs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Behavioral Approaches <ul><li>Reality Therapy and Multiculturalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many of the tenets of Reality therapy fits well with other cultures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helping the client explore wants and needs keeps the focus on the client’s values and concerns within the client’s cultural context. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reality therapy challenges the client to see the self in relationship to his or her context. This includes the client’s cultural context. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Behavioral Approaches <ul><li>Donald Meichenbaum’s Ten Central Tenets of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior is reciprocal between a client’s thoughts, feelings, psychological processes and resultant consequences. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitions do not cause emotional difficulty. </li></ul><ul><li>Counselors help clients understand how they construct and construe reality. </li></ul><ul><li>CBT therapists dissuade from the rationalist or objectivist position. </li></ul><ul><li>There is an emphasis on collaboration with the client. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” </li></ul>
  21. 21. Behavioral Approaches <ul><li>Donald Meichenbaum’s Ten Central Tenets of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>Relapse prevention is central to cognitive behavioral therapy. </li></ul><ul><li>The client/therapist relationship is critical for change to occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions play a critical role in cognitive-behavioral therapy. </li></ul><ul><li>CBT is used with couples and families. </li></ul><ul><li>CBT can be used in a variety of setting with a variety of issues. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” </li></ul>
  22. 22. Behavioral Approaches <ul><li>Applied Behavioral Analysis: Central Constructs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Client-counselor relationship is imperative and counselors exhibit high levels of empathy, self-congruence and interpersonal contact. The relationship is collaborative and relationship variables differ according to client and culture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operationalization of Behavior: Focuses on the concreteness and specifics of behavior. Vagueness is transformed into objective, observable actions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional Analysis: The ABC’s of behavior. An individual's behavior is directly related to events and stimuli in the environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” </li></ul>
  23. 23. Behavioral Approaches <ul><li>Applied Behavioral Analysis: Central Constructs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcement: Behavior develops and maintains itself through a system of punishments and rewards. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals: These are designed to make specific behavioral changes. Goals are concrete, specific, observable and measurable. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” </li></ul>
  24. 24. Resources <ul><li>Ivey, A. E., D’Andrea, M., Ivey, M. B. and Morgan, L. S. (2002). Theories of counseling </li></ul><ul><li>and psychotherapy: A multicultural perspective, 5 th ed. Boston, MA.: Allyn & </li></ul><ul><li>Bacon. </li></ul><ul><li>James, R. K. & Gilliland, B. E. (2003). Theories and strategies in counseling and </li></ul><ul><li>psychotherapy, 5 th ed. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. </li></ul><ul><li>Kottler, J. A. (2002). Theories in counseling and therapy: An experiential approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” </li></ul>

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