Fiber Optic Cables <br />How do you choose the type of cable to use?<br />Why use one over the other?<br />What’s the big deal?<br />
Cable Types<br />Primary Cable Types<br />Indoor (ISP) – Tight Buffered design<br />Tight-buffered cable is primarily used inside buildings.<br />With tight-buffered cable designs, the buffering material is in direct contact with the fiber.<br />This design is suited for<br /> "jumper cables" which connect outside plant cables to terminal equipment.<br />linking various devices in a premises network.<br />Multi-fiber, tight-buffered cables often are used for intra-building, risers, general building and plenum applications.<br />Outdoor (OSP) – Loose Tube design<br />Loose-tube cable is used in the majority of outside-plant installations.<br />It is a modular design of buffer tubes which typically holds up to 12 fibers per buffer tube.<br />They can be all-dielectric or armored. <br />The modular buffer tube design permits easy drop-off of groups of fibers at intermediate points, without interfering with other protected buffer tubes being routed to other locations.<br />The loose-tube design also helps in the identification and administration of fibers in the system.<br />Why<br />Environmental<br />Heat, cold, water<br />Physical Protection<br />Sheath composition, number of sheaths, armoring, type of armor, number of armored wraps<br />NFPA, OSHA, MSHA<br />Non-rated, riser, plenum, LSZH, ship board, mining.<br />Which used where<br />
Fiber Cables – Inside Plant (ISP) <br />Indoor – Inside Plant (ISP) cables are available in a variety of fiber counts, constructions and jacket materials. <br />They are designed to perform in inside plant applications such as<br />Connecting outside plant cables to terminal equipment.<br />Linking various devices in a premises network.<br />Intra-building, risers, general building and plenum applications.<br />
ISP Cables – Distribution<br />Indoor Tight Buffer Distribution Fiber Optic Cable<br />Has individually thermoplastic color coded 900μm buffered fibers.<br />The buffered fibers are then surrounded by all-dielectric aramid strength members for strength and minimization of stress during installation.<br />The core groups are then protected with an overall jacket.<br />On cables with higher (>24) fiber counts the fibers are bundled in groups of 6 or 12. these are called subunits.<br />
ISP Cables – Fire Rating<br />National Fire Protection Association® (NFPA®) NEC The NFPA/NEC develops and produces fire and safety codes relating to telecommunications. Article 770 of the National Electrical Code (NEC), also known as NFPA 70, covers requirements for optical fiber cables.<br />Fire Rating – Optical Fiber Cables are normally rated OFN, OFC, OFCR, OFNR, OFCP and OFNP<br />OFN, stands for Optical Fiber Nonconductive Non-rated / OFC, stands for Optical Fiber Conductive Non-rated<br />OFNR, stands for Optical Fiber Nonconductive Riser-rated/ OFCR, stands for Optical Fiber Conductive Riser-rated<br />OFNP, stands for Optical Fiber Nonconductive Plenum-rated / OFCP, stands for Optical Fiber Conductive Plenum-rated<br />NEC dictates where and how cables my be used within buildings.<br />Non rated and General cables can be used in non-fire rated environments and these cables can be brought into a building < 50 ft.<br />Riser Rated cables can be used in riser rated and non-fire rated environments.<br />Plenum Rated cables can be used in plenum, riser and non-fire rated environments.<br />
Fiber Cables – Outside Plant (OSP)<br />Outdoor – Outside Plant (OSP) cables are available in a variety of fiber counts, constructions and jacket materials. <br />They are designed to perform in outside plant applications such as<br />ducts,<br />aerial and<br />direct buried applications.<br />
OSP Cables – Duct, Conduit, Aerial<br />Loose Tube Cable<br />All dielectric central strength member <br />Excellent attenuation performance <br />Water blocking for moisture protection <br />Polyethylene jacket for weather and UV protection<br />Recommended Applications<br />Building interconnections and data trunk <br />Long haul networking <br />Ducts between buildings and aerial lashing <br />Applications requiring good ozone, moisture, weather resistance <br />
OSP Cables<br />In a Loose tube cable design the optical fibers are placed inside “filled” buffer tubes.<br />The core is constructed by stranding the buffer tubes around a central member using a reverse oscillated lay. <br />The core is then wrapped with flexible strength members, then either covered with a water blocking tape, gel or , <br />Then encased with a black polyethylene jacket. Ripcords are included for ease of entry.<br />
OSP Cables<br />OSP cable design can vary in many different ways. Some typical variations are:<br />Central Tube<br />Water Blocking – Liquid / Tape / Powder / Gel<br />Full / Partly Flooded<br />Armored – Aluminum / Steel / Interlocked<br />
High Density<br />One of the significant advantages of fiber cable is the density it can achieve. This density can be accomplished via 2 methods<br />1. Ribbon Fiber – 1008 fibers (1.06 OD) 144 fibers per tube (12x12)<br />
High Density<br />2. High Count Loose Tube – 432 fibers (.91 OD) 12 fibers per tube – 36 tubes<br />
Application Specific<br />In general, “indoor” implies that the cable has at minimum an NEC Fire Resistance Rating so that the cable is not subject to the typical 50-foot indoor length limitation that applies to outside plant (OSP) cables. “Outdoor” generally implies that the construction of the cable is such that it will withstand certain environmental extremes typically only experienced outdoors. <br />Designs are available in loose-tube and tight-buffered construction and are suitable for all fiber types.<br />Indoor/outdoor fiber optic cables are generally all-dielectric and thus exempt from the grounding issues inherent to copper conductor cables. <br />Indoor / Outdoor Cable – This cable is water-blocked/sunlight resistant indoor/outdoor tight buffer – Riser Rated OFNR<br />Indoor/outdoor cable offers a premises fiber optic cable versatility. <br />Can be extended inside the building and not require a transition splice.<br />Can be installed in open spaces, trays, conduits, inner-ducts, trenches, steam tunnels and building riser locations. <br />Dry-water blocking technology eliminates the need to clean off the traditional gel-based water-blocking compounds <br />Breakout kits and or other special termination equipment are not required<br />Outer jacket is UL listed sunlight resistant polymer for exposure to long-term direct sunlight without the concern of material degradation.<br />
Application Specific<br />ADSS - for use on distribution and high voltage transmission lines as it is unaffected by electromagnetic fields<br />OPGW - dual functioning cable a static ground wire incorporating optical fibers into the design of the cable <br />Figure 8 - black polyethylene outer jacket with integrated EHS steel messenger <br />
Obsolete Fiber Optic Connectors Optimate<br />The AMP Optimate was popular in the early 80s. It used a conical plastic ferrule and screw-on nut. It was available for every fiber size including plastic fiber. Some may still be in use in utility and industrial systems.<br />
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