Fiber Optic Connectors Basics, Styles, Trends -Troy Bowen, JFC Solutions
Agenda <ul><li>History and Market </li></ul><ul><li>Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Construction and Fiber Types </li></ul><ul...
History <ul><li>1965   -  Charles K. Kao  and  George A. Hockham  of the British company  Standard Telephones and Cables  ...
The Market <ul><li>There are  110  design types of Fiber Optic connectors. </li></ul><ul><li>Total factory shipments of Fi...
Connector Standards Confidential <ul><li>TIA/EIA-4750000-B  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generic Specification for Fiber Optic Co...
The Glass <ul><li>Typical Construction </li></ul>Confidential <ul><li>Example:  8/125μm </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core 8 m...
The Glass <ul><li>Single-mode   –  8/125μm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiber supporting only one mode is called  single-mode  </...
The Glass <ul><li>Multimode   -  62.5/125μm  and  50/125μm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiber with large (greater than 10μm) core...
Single-mode – Multimode Comparison Confidential
The Connector <ul><li>Fiber optic connectors have traditionally been the biggest concern in using fiber optic systems.  </...
Connector Basics Confidential <ul><li>The Connector Body </li></ul><ul><li>Also called the connector housing, the connecto...
Connector Basics Confidential <ul><li>The Cable </li></ul><ul><li>The cable is attached to the connector body.  </li></ul>...
Connector Basics <ul><li>The Ferrule </li></ul><ul><li>The fiber is mounted in a long, thin cylinder, the ferrule, which a...
Coupling of Connectors Confidential <ul><li>The Coupling Device </li></ul><ul><li>Most fiber optic connectors do not use t...
Performance Measures <ul><li>Insertion Loss (IL)  is the amount of optical power lost as a result of a connection. Express...
Performance Measures <ul><li>Back Reflection  represents the total accumulated light reflected back to the source along a ...
Connector Loss <ul><li>Connector loss is caused by a number of factors.  </li></ul><ul><li>Loss is minimized when the two ...
Types of Polishes <ul><li>The polish on a fiber connector dictates the amount of back reflection.  </li></ul><ul><li>Back ...
Connector Styles <ul><li>Anaerobic Adhesives :  These connectors use a quick setting adhesive.  They work well if your tec...
Connector Styles <ul><li>Crimp/Polish :  Rather than glue the fiber in the connector, these connectors use a crimp on the ...
Connector Types – Biconic (FOCIS 1) <ul><li>The Biconic connector was developed by AT&T and became the de facto standard f...
Connector Types – ST (FOCIS 2) <ul><li>ST stands for  Straight Tip  - a quick release style connector developed by AT&T.  ...
Connector Types – SC (FOCIS 3) <ul><li>The SC  (subscriber connector)  was developed by NTT specifically as a telecom conn...
Connector Types – FC (FOCIS 4) <ul><li>FC stands for  Ferrule Connector  or  Fixed Connection .  </li></ul><ul><li>The FC ...
Connector Types – MTP/MPO (FOCIS 5) <ul><li>The MPO connector family is defined by two different standards. Internationall...
Connector Types – LC (FOCIS 10) <ul><li>LC   The LC is a small form-factor (SFF) fiber optic connector. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Other Connectors <ul><li>SMA, D4, Mini-BNC, FDDI, ESCON, SCDC (Corning), Opti-Jack (Panduit), VF-45 (3M Volition), E2000 /...
Confidential Leviton Fiber Connector Applications FastCAM (pre-polished) Fast Cure (adhesive) ThreadLock (mechanical) Ente...
Applications / Trends <ul><li>Private Networks (Enterprise) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small to Medium Networks </li></ul></ul>...
Future <ul><li>Higher performance  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10gig, 40gig, 100gig </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Greater density (Data...
<ul><li>Introducing  FastCAM  Field Installable Fiber  </li></ul><ul><li>Optic Connectors </li></ul>Confidential F ield  A...
Confidential •  Utilizes proven, precise mechanical splice technology.  •  Eliminate the need for lengthy training of stan...
FastCAM  Connectors -  features <ul><li>Designed around proven molded v-groove technology </li></ul><ul><li>No polishing  ...
FastCAM Details -  mechanics Confidential Pre-installed Fiber Front Upper Body Back Upper Body Matching Gel Mechanical Spl...
FastCAM Details –  Wedge Clip Confidential Wedge Inserted Fiber
FastCAM Connector Installation Steps Confidential 2.   Engage Wedge then insert prepared fiber 3. Disengage Wedge to lock-...
FastCAM Connector Installation Animation Video Confidential
FastCAM Connector Performance Confidential
FastCAM Connector Performance Confidential
FastCAM Connector Performance Confidential
FastCAM Connectors-  part numbers Confidential
FastCAM Connector Pricing Guideline Confidential The Competition Corning Unicam mm: $8.50 – $10.00 sm:  $12.90 Tyco LightC...
FastCAM Connectors Confidential Summary   Leviton’s new FastCAM connector –  Requires no costly proprietary tooling Elimin...
Confidential Thank You!
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Fiber Optic Connectors Basics Styles Trends Final 1

  1. 1. Fiber Optic Connectors Basics, Styles, Trends -Troy Bowen, JFC Solutions
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>History and Market </li></ul><ul><li>Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Construction and Fiber Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connector typical components </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance Definitions and Measurement </li></ul><ul><li>Connector Types </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Future </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Product Spotlight - Leviton FastCAM Connector </li></ul>Confidential
  3. 3. History <ul><li>1965 - Charles K. Kao and George A. Hockham of the British company Standard Telephones and Cables demonstrated that optical fiber could be a practical medium for communication, if the attenuation could be reduced below 20 dB per kilometer </li></ul><ul><li>1970 - Researchers Robert D. Maurer, Donald Keck, Peter Schultz, and Frank Zimar working for American glass maker Corning Glass Works . They manufactured a fiber with 17 dB optic attenuation per kilometer by doping silica glass with titanium. </li></ul><ul><li>1977 - On April 22, General Telephone and Electronics sent the first live telephone traffic through fiber optics, at 6 Mbit/s, in Long Beach, California. </li></ul><ul><li>1986 - The erbium-doped fiber amplifier, which reduced the cost of long-distance fiber systems by eliminating the need for optical-electrical-optical repeaters, was invented by David Payne of the University of Southampton, and Emmanuel Desurvire at Bell Laboratories . </li></ul><ul><li>And the industry and applications have exploded since!!! </li></ul>Confidential
  4. 4. The Market <ul><li>There are 110 design types of Fiber Optic connectors. </li></ul><ul><li>Total factory shipments of Fiber Optic connectors were $1.273 billion in 2005 and are projected to reach $1.976 billion by the year 2010. </li></ul>Confidential Copyright © 2006, Fleck Research, Global Connector Research Group, Inc .
  5. 5. Connector Standards Confidential <ul><li>TIA/EIA-4750000-B </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generic Specification for Fiber Optic Connectors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TIA/EIA-604 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiber Optic Connector Intermateability Standards (FOCIS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.tiaonline.org </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GR-326 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generic Requirements for Single-Mode Optical Fiber Connectors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GR-1435 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generic Requirements for Multi-fiber Optical Connectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.telcordia.com </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Glass <ul><li>Typical Construction </li></ul>Confidential <ul><li>Example: 8/125μm </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core 8 micron diameter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cladding 125 micron diameter </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Glass <ul><li>Single-mode – 8/125μm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiber supporting only one mode is called single-mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Default Premises Cable Jacket Color = Yellow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses Lasers to transmit signal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The laser can be multiplexed in order to send many different signals down one fiber. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1310 and 1550nm are the most common wavelengths </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single-mode systems can send a signal much faster and for longer distance than multimode systems. </li></ul></ul>Confidential
  8. 8. The Glass <ul><li>Multimode - 62.5/125μm and 50/125μm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiber with large (greater than 10μm) core diameter is called multimode fiber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Default Premises Cable Jacket Color = Orange or Aqua (for laser optimized fibers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The first multimode fiber size was 100/140μm. These larger sizes are currently used for instrumentation applications. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses LED’s to transmit signal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>850nm and 1310nm are the most common wavelengths </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LED’s can not be multiplexed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily used in short distance communication (LAN) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less than 2km </li></ul></ul></ul>Confidential
  9. 9. Single-mode – Multimode Comparison Confidential
  10. 10. The Connector <ul><li>Fiber optic connectors have traditionally been the biggest concern in using fiber optic systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Connectors were once unwieldy and difficult to use. </li></ul><ul><li>Connector manufacturers have standardized and simplified connectors greatly. </li></ul><ul><li>This increasing user-friendliness has contributed to the increase in the use of fiber optic systems </li></ul><ul><li>The sole purpose of a connector is to mate fiber-optic cable with minimal loss of light. </li></ul><ul><li>Connectors are designed for many different applications including telecommunications, local area networks, and harsh environments. </li></ul>Confidential
  11. 11. Connector Basics Confidential <ul><li>The Connector Body </li></ul><ul><li>Also called the connector housing, the connector body holds the ferrule. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually constructed of metal or plastic and includes one or more assembled pieces which hold the fiber in place. </li></ul><ul><li>Details vary among connectors, but bonding and/or crimping is commonly used to attach strength members and cable jackets to the connector body. </li></ul><ul><li>The ferrule extends past the connector body to slip into a coupling device </li></ul>
  12. 12. Connector Basics Confidential <ul><li>The Cable </li></ul><ul><li>The cable is attached to the connector body. </li></ul><ul><li>Typically, a strain-relief boot is added over the junction between the cable and the connector body, providing extra strength to the junction. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Connector Basics <ul><li>The Ferrule </li></ul><ul><li>The fiber is mounted in a long, thin cylinder, the ferrule, which acts as a fiber alignment mechanism. </li></ul><ul><li>The ferrule is bored through the center at a diameter that is slightly larger than the diameter of the fiber cladding. </li></ul><ul><li>The end of the fiber is located at the end of the ferrule. </li></ul>Confidential <ul><li>Ferrules are typically made of metal or ceramic, but they may also be constructed of plastic. </li></ul><ul><li>The most distinct differentiations between connector types are the diameter of the ferrule, 2.5 mm or 1.25 mm, and the type of polish. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Coupling of Connectors Confidential <ul><li>The Coupling Device </li></ul><ul><li>Most fiber optic connectors do not use the male-female configuration common to electronic connectors. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead, a coupling device such as an alignment sleeve is used to mate the connectors. </li></ul><ul><li>Similar devices may be installed in fiber optic transmitters and receivers to allow these devices to be mated via a connector. </li></ul><ul><li>These devices are also known as feed-through bulkhead adapters. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Performance Measures <ul><li>Insertion Loss (IL) is the amount of optical power lost as a result of a connection. Expressed in decibels, it is the ratio of measured optical power before and after the connector. It always is tested because it is the most important connector parameter. </li></ul><ul><li>Return Loss (RL) a term applied to the light reflection in the connector’s interface that return to the source. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The greater the absolute value , the better: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: -60dB RL is better than -35dB RL. </li></ul></ul></ul>Confidential
  16. 16. Performance Measures <ul><li>Back Reflection represents the total accumulated light reflected back to the source along a link. This return of the light is due to different physical phenomena such as multiple connector back-reflections, bad splicing, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Some effects of back reflection include the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less light is transmitted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes interference with light source signals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates higher bit error rate (BER) in digital systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in analog systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CATV systems virtually standardize on APC type connectors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>High back reflection can cause bad or harmful consequences such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes fluctuations in the light source’s central wavelength </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes fluctuations in its output power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Damages the light source (transmitter) permanently </li></ul></ul>Confidential
  17. 17. Connector Loss <ul><li>Connector loss is caused by a number of factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Loss is minimized when the two fiber cores are identical and perfectly aligned, the connectors are properly finished and no dirt is present. </li></ul><ul><li>Only the light that is coupled into the receiving fiber's core will propagate, so all the rest of the light becomes the connector loss. </li></ul>Confidential
  18. 18. Types of Polishes <ul><li>The polish on a fiber connector dictates the amount of back reflection. </li></ul><ul><li>Back reflection is a measure of the light reflected off the polished end of a fiber connector measured in negative dB. </li></ul><ul><li>The physical-contact (PC) polish is a flat finish of the connecting area </li></ul><ul><li>The angled physical contact (APC) is at an 8 ° angle. </li></ul><ul><li>An APC greatly reduces back reflections caused by the physical interface. </li></ul>Confidential
  19. 19. Connector Styles <ul><li>Anaerobic Adhesives : These connectors use a quick setting adhesive. They work well if your technique is repeatable, but often they do not have the wide temperature range of epoxies, so they are only used indoors. Thus, generally used for factory terminations only. </li></ul><ul><li>Epoxy/Polish : These connectors are the simple &quot;epoxy/polish&quot; type where the fiber is glued into the connector with epoxy and the end polished with special polishing film. These provide a very reliable connection with low losses. They can be factory or field installed. </li></ul>Confidential
  20. 20. Connector Styles <ul><li>Crimp/Polish : Rather than glue the fiber in the connector, these connectors use a crimp on the fiber to hold it in. Early types offered &quot;iffy&quot; performance, but today they are pretty good, if you practice a lot. Expect to trade higher losses for the faster termination speed. And they are more costly than epoxy polish types. </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-Polished : Many manufacturers offer connectors that have a short stub fiber already epoxied into the ferrule and polished perfectly, so you just cleave a fiber and insert it like a splice. While it sound like a great idea, it has several downsides. First it is very costly, 2 to 3 times as much as an epoxy polish type. Second, you have to make a good cleave to make them low loss. </li></ul>Confidential
  21. 21. Connector Types – Biconic (FOCIS 1) <ul><li>The Biconic connector was developed by AT&T and became the de facto standard for long haul telecommunications. </li></ul><ul><li>The Biconic connector features a cone-shaped tip, which holds a single fiber.  </li></ul><ul><li>It is non-metallic, using polymer and epoxy in its construction. </li></ul><ul><li>Telcos have long since adopted other connectors, mainly the SC due to the drawbacks of the Biconic such as its large size and the fact that it is mated by screwing it into its coupling. </li></ul><ul><li>Screw coupling makes its performance sensitive to rotational changes. </li></ul>Confidential
  22. 22. Connector Types – ST (FOCIS 2) <ul><li>ST stands for Straight Tip - a quick release style connector developed by AT&T. ST’s were the predominant connector in the late 80s and early 90s. </li></ul><ul><li>ST Connectors are among the most commonly used fiber optic connectors in networking applications. They are cylindrical with twist lock coupling, 2.5mm keyed ferrule. </li></ul><ul><li>The ST connector has a bayonet mount and a long cylindrical ferrule to hold the fiber. Because they are spring-loaded, you have to make sure they are seated properly. If you experience high light loss, try reconnecting. </li></ul>Confidential
  23. 23. Connector Types – SC (FOCIS 3) <ul><li>The SC (subscriber connector) was developed by NTT specifically as a telecom connector. </li></ul><ul><li>It features push-pull coupling which eliminates rotation which can damage fiber end-faces. This design also allows higher packaging densities. </li></ul><ul><li>An important element of the design is an isolated ferrule, which protects the ferrule and fiber from cable stresses. </li></ul><ul><li>The SC is available in the usual simplex configuration and with duplex adapters as well. </li></ul><ul><li>For maximum density, quad and &quot;six-pack“ configurations are available. </li></ul>Confidential
  24. 24. Connector Types – FC (FOCIS 4) <ul><li>FC stands for Ferrule Connector or Fixed Connection . </li></ul><ul><li>The FC connector was developed by NTT as a singlemode telecom connector. </li></ul><ul><li>It uses a combination of thread (screw-on) and keyed design to provide high repeatability and good fiber endface protection. </li></ul>Confidential
  25. 25. Connector Types – MTP/MPO (FOCIS 5) <ul><li>The MPO connector family is defined by two different standards. Internationally the MPO is defined by IEC-61754-7. In the USA, the MPO is defined by TIA-604-5 (FOCIS 5). </li></ul><ul><li>The MTP multi-fiber connector is US Conec’s trademarked name for their MPO connector. </li></ul><ul><li>The MTP connector is fully compliant with both FOCIS 5 and IEC-61754-7; therefore it is an MPO connector. </li></ul><ul><li>The MTP connector design is distinctly different than the MPO. </li></ul><ul><li>The MTP connector is a high performance MPO! </li></ul><ul><li>The MTP/MPO is a connector manufactured specifically for a multifiber ribbon cable. </li></ul><ul><li>MPO = Multi-fiber Push On </li></ul>Confidential
  26. 26. Connector Types – LC (FOCIS 10) <ul><li>LC The LC is a small form-factor (SFF) fiber optic connector. </li></ul><ul><li>The LC connector uses a 1.25 mm ferrule, half the size of the ST or SC ferrule. Otherwise, it is a standard ceramic ferrule connector. The LC has good performance and is highly favored for singlemode and LO Multimode and has been gaining the preference of equipment manufacturers because of its compact size and performance. </li></ul>Confidential
  27. 27. Other Connectors <ul><li>SMA, D4, Mini-BNC, FDDI, ESCON, SCDC (Corning), Opti-Jack (Panduit), VF-45 (3M Volition), E2000 / LX.5, .... </li></ul><ul><li>Proprietary – No License Available </li></ul><ul><li>Old / Never adopted by equipment manufactures </li></ul><ul><li>No wide spread acceptance in the market </li></ul>Confidential
  28. 28. Confidential Leviton Fiber Connector Applications FastCAM (pre-polished) Fast Cure (adhesive) ThreadLock (mechanical) Enterprise (indoors)    Outside Plant X?  X Harsh Environments (Industrial) X  X Patch Cords X  X Fast Installation Best Slow Medium Craft Sensitiveness Lowest Medium/High Highest Connector Types SC, ST, LC SC, ST, LC, FC SC, ST, FC Fiber Types MM and SM MM and SM MM and SM Reusable Limited No Virtually unlimited
  29. 29. Applications / Trends <ul><li>Private Networks (Enterprise) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small to Medium Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ST, SC are predominant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ST, SC with LC growing rapidly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LC and MTP dominate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Public Networks (Service Providers) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telcos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SC with LC growing due to density </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CATV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FC, SC </li></ul></ul></ul>Confidential
  30. 30. Future <ul><li>Higher performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10gig, 40gig, 100gig </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Greater density (Data Centers) </li></ul><ul><li>OSP Capable (FTTH networks) </li></ul><ul><li>FTTx Advancements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiber to the Home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiber in the Home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiber to the Wall Plate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiber to the Desk </li></ul></ul>Confidential Demand for ease of use, greater durability and repeatable performance over time will drive connector technology!!!
  31. 31. <ul><li>Introducing FastCAM Field Installable Fiber </li></ul><ul><li>Optic Connectors </li></ul>Confidential F ield A ssembly – S imple T echnique Product Spotlight - FastCAM
  32. 32. Confidential • Utilizes proven, precise mechanical splice technology. • Eliminate the need for lengthy training of standard field termination. • Install virtually anywhere. No epoxy curing. No electrical power. • Low insertion loss and back reflection. High reliability. • Can be re-terminated in order to re-position the fiber. • Meets TIA/EIA 568B performance standards. Fast CAM Product Benefits The FASTEST installation.....period!
  33. 33. FastCAM Connectors - features <ul><li>Designed around proven molded v-groove technology </li></ul><ul><li>No polishing – it ’ s already done! </li></ul><ul><li>No epoxy curing- it ’ s in there! </li></ul><ul><li>SM and MM ST, SC, & LC industry standard interfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Universal design for 0.25mm & 0.9mm buffer sizes </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-stubbed factory polished connectors, with a unique disposable clip design insures a FAST termination, low loss & precision alignment. No tool! </li></ul>Confidential LC ST SC
  34. 34. FastCAM Details - mechanics Confidential Pre-installed Fiber Front Upper Body Back Upper Body Matching Gel Mechanical Splice Unit Metal Sleeve
  35. 35. FastCAM Details – Wedge Clip Confidential Wedge Inserted Fiber
  36. 36. FastCAM Connector Installation Steps Confidential 2. Engage Wedge then insert prepared fiber 3. Disengage Wedge to lock-in fiber & remove Wedge Clip 1. Prepare fiber – strip, clean, & cleave Wedge 4. Assemble connector
  37. 37. FastCAM Connector Installation Animation Video Confidential
  38. 38. FastCAM Connector Performance Confidential
  39. 39. FastCAM Connector Performance Confidential
  40. 40. FastCAM Connector Performance Confidential
  41. 41. FastCAM Connectors- part numbers Confidential
  42. 42. FastCAM Connector Pricing Guideline Confidential The Competition Corning Unicam mm: $8.50 – $10.00 sm: $12.90 Tyco LightCrimp+ mm: $8.00 sm: $12.50 - $14.00 Leviton FastCam mm: $ 8.50 sm: $ 12.95
  43. 43. FastCAM Connectors Confidential Summary Leviton’s new FastCAM connector – Requires no costly proprietary tooling Eliminates any field curing or polishing concern Enables a very FAST & reliable fiber termination
  44. 44. Confidential Thank You!
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