Using Backward Chaining to Teach Shoe Tying By Troy Smith
Reasons to Teach Shoe Tying “Teaching children how to tie their own shoes is one way to help young children learn self reliance. When they learn self reliance through shoe-tying, they may be apt to try other things on their own and develop into more independent, capable, and competent children, teens and adults (DRROBYN, 2008).”
Reasons to Teach Shoe Tying To teach fine motor skills. “Fine motor skills involve the small muscles of the body that enable such functions as writing, grasping small objects, and fastening clothing. Fine motor skills involve strength, fine motor control, and dexterity” (Silverman, 2008). “Fine motor skills are important in most school activities as well as in life in general. Weaknesses in fine motor skills can affect a child's ability to eat, write legibly, use a computer, turn pages in a book, and perform personal care tasks such as dressing and grooming” (Silverman, 2008).
What is Backwards Chaining? Backward chaining is starting at the final step and working “backwards” to the first step.
Where to start? First complete a task analysis by breaking down each step needed to complete the task. Start at the last step. Provide praise or some other kind of reinforcement for the completion of each step. Continue to the next step, where the participant must complete this step as well as the step before. Continue this process until completion of the task.
Step by Step With the left (yellow) lace now through the "hole", grab hold of both loops and start to pull the knot tight.
Step by Step Start to feed the left (yellow) lace into the "hole" that has just been made.
Step by Step Continue the left (yellow) end around the right loop to end up in front.
Step by Step Take the left (yellow) end and pass it around to the right, going behind the right loop.
Step by Step Tie a Left-over-Right Starting Knot as shown, then make the right (blue) end into a "loop" by simply doubling it back onto itself.
Step by Step Pull both ends tight to complete the knot.
Step by Step Feed the right (blue) end through the gap to emerge at the front right hand side.
Step by Step Begin to wrap the right (blue) end around the front of the left (yellow) lace to end up at the back of the gap between the laces.
Step by Step Cross the left (blue) end over the right (yellow) end. The left (blue) end is now on the right side.
References: Ian’s Shoelace Site is a site that presents fun, fashion, and science of shoelaces (http://www.fieggen.com/shoelace/index.htm) (http://www.fieggen.com/shoelace/standardknot.htm) Logsdon, A. Fine Motor Skills – Learn about Fine Motor Skills and How to Improve Them.About.com. Fromhttp://learningdisabilities.about.com/od/df/p/finemotorskills.htm Wilkinson, L. (2000) #1952. Tying Shoes: Collection of songs and poems.http://teachers.net/. From http://teachers.net/lessons/posts/1952.html Silverman, R. MARCH 1, 2008. Self Reliance: Teaching Children How to Tie Shoeshttp://www.drrobynsilverman.com/. From http://www.drrobynsilverman.com/ 2008/03/01/self-reliance-teaching-children-how-to-tie-shoes/