b. This will enable it to chart a course in the mutual interests
of all concerned. “Here’s what we can do.”
3. Communicati...
PUBLIC RELATION
PROCESS
 The systematic gathering of information to
understand…Three Key Elements
 Client Organization
 Problem/Opportunity; Is...
1. Secondary research (from documents)
 Taken from others sources
 Library books & periodicals
 Government documents (C...
 Values &goals, internal & External
 History & traditions
 Use of communication
Understand the problem/ environment
 W...
How do concern of key public differ?
 Full- time undergraduates
 Parents
 Alumni
 State Legislature
 Residents near t...
What are other steps in the process?
 Research
 Planning or objective Setting
 Programming or implementation
 Evaluati...
Develop a strategy that involves:
1. Identifying goals and objectives
2. Identifying target audience(s) or public(s)
3. Cr...
PLANNING REQUIRES:
1. A searching looks backward – to determine al the factors which led
to the situation under study. (wh...
COMMUNICATING- THE THIRD STEP-what we did and why?
This means explaining and dramatizing the chosen course to all
those wh...
Development and implementation
1.Tactics for communicating
2. Timeline (procedures) for the program/campaign
3. Budget
Str...
-The context must provide for participation and playback. The context
must confirm, not contradict the message.
3. Content...
7. Capability of audience- communication must take into account the
capability of audience. Communication is most effectiv...
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  1. 1. b. This will enable it to chart a course in the mutual interests of all concerned. “Here’s what we can do.” 3. Communication a. This means explaining and dramatizing the chosen course to all those who may be affected and whose support essential. b.“ how did we do?” • Each of one of these steps is a important as the others. • Each one is vital with to an effective program. • Each of one of these steps is a to research, too research, too little planning and too much publicity • The program moves steadily forward in one whole, continuing process.
  2. 2. PUBLIC RELATION PROCESS
  3. 3.  The systematic gathering of information to understand…Three Key Elements  Client Organization  Problem/Opportunity; Issues/Environment/ problem or potential problem and opportunities to do public relation.  Key public/ audience
  4. 4. 1. Secondary research (from documents)  Taken from others sources  Library books & periodicals  Government documents (Census Bureau)  Trade &Professional Organizations  Other published research ( Scholarly Pubs) 2. Primary research (from people)  Survey and polls  Intercept interviews  Focus groups  In depth interviews  Research by “ walking around” Goal of Research: Understanding your client  Operation & Functions  As a culture for employees
  5. 5.  Values &goals, internal & External  History & traditions  Use of communication Understand the problem/ environment  Why were we called in? (Focus of PR project)  Key issues affecting client?  Primary opportunities, primary obstacles?  How has client solved similar problems?  How have others solved similar problems? Understand key publics Group of individuals with common characteristics and common concerns who have in success or failure of your organization.  Key goal of PR To improve upon and maintain mutually beneficial relationships between the organization and its key public  Words to live by:  To be successful, all parties must benefit.
  6. 6. How do concern of key public differ?  Full- time undergraduates  Parents  Alumni  State Legislature  Residents near the campus How do we learn of these differences?  Study secondary research available  Study similar organizations  Survey& polls  Focus groups  Meet & discuss (research by walking around)  Be your client’s listening post Research phase:  Helps you understand client, problem & publics  Form basis for PR plan to create  Brings strategy & creativity together
  7. 7. What are other steps in the process?  Research  Planning or objective Setting  Programming or implementation  Evaluation  R-A-C-E formula John Marston (1963) Research-Action-Communication-Evaluation  R-O-P-E Research-Objective Setting-Programming-Evaluation  R-P-I-E Research-Planning-Implementing- Evaluation Second step-PLANNING The second step in the process is the putting down of plans. Once a particular problem is defined, and then comes the decision of what to do about it.
  8. 8. Develop a strategy that involves: 1. Identifying goals and objectives 2. Identifying target audience(s) or public(s) 3. Creating a theme (topic for the program/ campaign MAIN OBSTACLES to PUBLIC RELATIONS PLANNING 1. Failure of management to include the practitioner in deliberation that leads to policies and programs. 2. Lack of clearly agreed upon objectives for implementing the public relations program. 3. Lack of time, which is stolen by he pressures of meeting daily problems. 4. The frustrations and delays which practitioners encounter in the endless task of internal clearance and coordination with other department. 5. The practitioner’s faith in the ultimate value of getting publicity as it develop in organization day by day.
  9. 9. PLANNING REQUIRES: 1. A searching looks backward – to determine al the factors which led to the situation under study. (what was the problem, root of the problem, who are the one who makes this) 2. A deep look inside- in which the pull together facts and opinions are considered in the light of the institution’s objective and weighed as to their validity. 3. A wide look around inside- in which there is study of like situation in like organizations; political, social and economic trends; and the mood of the times. (relate it to the other organization) 4. A long, long look ahead- in which goals for the organization and for implanting the PR program are set.  Planning starts with the realistic aims of the organizations  It covers a determination of goals, strategy, of tactics  It set up objectives, or target at close and long range.  When it comes to strategy and tactics, you have the idea there.
  10. 10. COMMUNICATING- THE THIRD STEP-what we did and why? This means explaining and dramatizing the chosen course to all those who may be affected and whose support is essential.  The word communication derived from the Latin word communis meaning common.  The purpose of communication is to establish commoners(masses)  There are three basic elements in communication SMCR o SMR.  Effective communication requires efficiency on the part of all three.  The communicator must have adequate information. He must be able to present it in symbols the receiver will understand.  He must use channel that will carry the message to the receiver.  When there has been common experience on which to establish commones then communication becomes impossible.
  11. 11. Development and implementation 1.Tactics for communicating 2. Timeline (procedures) for the program/campaign 3. Budget Strategy(plan or approach)- it is the master plan for winning a campaign. Tactics(tools for campaigning)- cover skillful use of tools and techniques in winning the several battles that make a campaign. The 7C’s of Communication 1. Credibility- communications starts with a climate of belief. This is built by performance reflects an earnest desire to serve the receiver. 2. Context- a communication program must square with the realities of its environment. Mechanical media are only supplementary to the word and deed that takes place in daily living.
  12. 12. -The context must provide for participation and playback. The context must confirm, not contradict the message. 3. Content- The message must have meaning for the receiver and it must be compatible with his value system. It must have relevance to him. In general, people select those items of information which promise them greatest rewards. The content determines the audience. 4. Clarity- their message must be put in simple terms. Word must mean the same thing to the receiver as they do to sender. Complex issues must be compressed in themes, slogans, or stereotypes which have simplicity. 5. Continuity and consistency- communication is an unending process. It requires repetition to achieve penetration. Repetition-with variation-contributes to both factual and attitude learning. The story must be consistent. 6. Channels- established channels of communication should be used. Different channels have different effects and serve in different stage of the diffusion process.
  13. 13. 7. Capability of audience- communication must take into account the capability of audience. Communication is most effective when they require the least effort on the part of the recipient. This includes factors of availability, habit, reading ability, and receiver’s knowledge EVALUATING- THE FOURTH STEP- how did we do? 1. Identify research methods to be used to evaluate the success of the program/campaign during & after. 2. Determine a way to measure whether the campaign achieved its objectives.  Evaluation is the common- sense of profiting from experience.  The final step in the process is to seek, through research, answer to the questions: How did we do? Would we have been better off if we have had tried something else?  Evaluate leads logically back into the first step.  It mainly refers to the systematic effort to have the objective by comparing performance to plans.

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