b. This will enable it to chart a course in the mutual interests
of all concerned. “Here’s what we can do.”
a. This means explaining and dramatizing the chosen course
to all those who may be affected and whose support
b.“ how did we do?”
• Each of one of these steps is a important as the others.
• Each one is vital with to an effective program.
• Each of one of these steps is a to research, too research, too
little planning and too much publicity
• The program moves steadily forward in one
whole, continuing process.
The systematic gathering of information to
understand…Three Key Elements
problem or potential problem and
opportunities to do public relation.
Key public/ audience
1. Secondary research (from documents)
Taken from others sources
Library books & periodicals
Government documents (Census Bureau)
Trade &Professional Organizations
Other published research ( Scholarly Pubs)
2. Primary research (from people)
Survey and polls
In depth interviews
Research by “ walking around”
Goal of Research: Understanding your client
Operation & Functions
As a culture for employees
Values &goals, internal & External
History & traditions
Use of communication
Understand the problem/ environment
Why were we called in? (Focus of PR project)
Key issues affecting client?
Primary opportunities, primary obstacles?
How has client solved similar problems?
How have others solved similar problems?
Understand key publics
Group of individuals with common characteristics and common
concerns who have in success or failure of your organization.
Key goal of PR
To improve upon and maintain mutually beneficial relationships
between the organization and its key public
Words to live by:
To be successful, all parties must benefit.
How do concern of key public differ?
Full- time undergraduates
Residents near the campus
How do we learn of these differences?
Study secondary research available
Study similar organizations
Meet & discuss (research by walking around)
Be your client’s listening post
Helps you understand client, problem & publics
Form basis for PR plan to create
Brings strategy & creativity together
What are other steps in the process?
Planning or objective Setting
Programming or implementation
John Marston (1963)
The second step in the process is the putting down of plans. Once a
particular problem is defined, and then comes the decision of what
to do about it.
Develop a strategy that involves:
1. Identifying goals and objectives
2. Identifying target audience(s) or public(s)
3. Creating a theme (topic for the program/ campaign
MAIN OBSTACLES to PUBLIC RELATIONS PLANNING
1. Failure of management to include the practitioner in deliberation
that leads to policies and programs.
2. Lack of clearly agreed upon objectives for implementing the public
3. Lack of time, which is stolen by he pressures of meeting daily
4. The frustrations and delays which practitioners encounter in the
endless task of internal clearance and coordination with other
5. The practitioner’s faith in the ultimate value of getting publicity as
it develop in organization day by day.
1. A searching looks backward – to determine al the factors which led
to the situation under study. (what was the problem, root of the
problem, who are the one who makes this)
2. A deep look inside- in which the pull together facts and opinions
are considered in the light of the institution’s objective and weighed
as to their validity.
3. A wide look around inside- in which there is study of like situation
in like organizations; political, social and economic trends; and the
mood of the times. (relate it to the other organization)
4. A long, long look ahead- in which goals for the organization and for
implanting the PR program are set.
Planning starts with the realistic aims of the organizations
It covers a determination of goals, strategy, of tactics
It set up objectives, or target at close and long range.
When it comes to strategy and tactics, you have the idea there.
COMMUNICATING- THE THIRD STEP-what we did and why?
This means explaining and dramatizing the chosen course to all
those who may be affected and whose support is essential.
The word communication derived from the Latin word communis
The purpose of communication is to establish commoners(masses)
There are three basic elements in communication SMCR o SMR.
Effective communication requires efficiency on the part of all
The communicator must have adequate information. He must be able to
present it in symbols the receiver will understand.
He must use channel that will carry the message to the receiver.
When there has been common experience on which to establish
commones then communication becomes impossible.
Development and implementation
1.Tactics for communicating
2. Timeline (procedures) for the program/campaign
Strategy(plan or approach)- it is the master plan for winning a
Tactics(tools for campaigning)- cover skillful use of tools and
techniques in winning the several battles that make a campaign.
The 7C’s of Communication
1. Credibility- communications starts with a climate of belief. This is
built by performance reflects an earnest desire to serve the
2. Context- a communication program must square with the realities
of its environment. Mechanical media are only supplementary to
the word and deed that takes place in daily living.
-The context must provide for participation and playback. The context
must confirm, not contradict the message.
3. Content- The message must have meaning for the receiver and it
must be compatible with his value system. It must have relevance to
him. In general, people select those items of information which
promise them greatest rewards. The content determines the audience.
4. Clarity- their message must be put in simple terms. Word must
mean the same thing to the receiver as they do to sender. Complex
issues must be compressed in themes, slogans, or stereotypes which
5. Continuity and consistency- communication is an unending
process. It requires repetition to achieve penetration. Repetition-with
variation-contributes to both factual and attitude learning. The story
must be consistent.
6. Channels- established channels of communication should be used.
Different channels have different effects and serve in different stage of
the diffusion process.
7. Capability of audience- communication must take into account the
capability of audience. Communication is most effective when they
require the least effort on the part of the recipient. This includes
factors of availability, habit, reading ability, and receiver’s knowledge
EVALUATING- THE FOURTH STEP- how did we do?
1. Identify research methods to be used to evaluate the success of
the program/campaign during & after.
2. Determine a way to measure whether the campaign achieved its
Evaluation is the common- sense of profiting from experience.
The final step in the process is to seek, through research, answer to
the questions: How did we do? Would we have been better off if
we have had tried something else?
Evaluate leads logically back into the first step.
It mainly refers to the systematic effort to have the objective by
comparing performance to plans.