What is a Documentary?
A factual film or programme about the real world
For us this will be CYBERBULLYING, a real world issue
Conventionally a documentary will be the following;
We will do these ones !!!!! Because
all documentaries are Non- Fiction
and we plan to inform our target
audience about the effects of cyber
About the real world
bullying and what can be done to
stop it. Also it will be about the real
world as this is what happens in the
Informative and Educational
real world and the interviews we
Based on Observation rather than Intervention wish to do will be Unstaged because
people will be telling us their views
and we will be observing.
Subjectivity or Objectivity
Subjectivity is when your opinion
will show through in the
documentary and the general
opinion or stereotype
1. We believe we will be swayed more
to being subjective when making
this documentary as our view on
the topic is that something needs to
happen about it to make it stop.
However some people may say it is
a big fuss over nothing so there are
other views on the topic.
Objectivity is when you explore both
sides of an argument in the
documentary and not just one side.
1. However it could be said that we will
be Objective as we will look at the
effects of cyber bullying and why
people do it. So we are technically
looking at both sides of an
argument. However one aide clearly
is in favor.
Modes of Documentary
1. Expository Documentary
2. Observational Documentary
will fall under
3. Participatory Documentary
4. Reflexive Documentary
5. Performative Documentary
•Identifier of the modes of address- ALL 6 OF THEM
•Key theorist when discussing Documentaries
•Born – 1942
•Discovered theory at San Francisco University
•Stella Bruzzi2000criticsedNichols for suggesting that Documentary makers
have aimed for the 'perfect representation of the real’ and would fail in this
impossible aim, thus undermining the documentary form.
•She said that‘all types of documentary have existed at different times’
And have often, mixed styles. ‘What is the point of worrying about authenticity’
She sees documentary as contributing to meaning about real world events.
Development of Modes
Nicholas identifies the modes as developing
They develop because of new technologies, institutions
They can often be divided into 2 groups;
This type of documentary is probably the most familiar to
audiences and tends to be seen more on TV rather than in
It may include the following
Commenting on the images
Explaining what is happening in a direct address to the audience
AIM = To inform the audience about a happening or a thing
which they are not familiar with in our case it will be
1. Voiceover addresses the audience directly and is the
2. The voiceover may be a VOICE OF GOD commentator (
heard but not seen ) or VOICE OF AUTHORITY
commentator ( seen and heard)- usually an expert in the
field. We have chosen to use the VOICE OF GOD as we
believe this is most suitable for our topic.
3. Images are used to illustrate the voiceover
4. Direct relationship between voiceover and images shown
5. Editing is used for continuity, to link together the images
supporting the argument put forward by the voiceover
6. A variety of footage, interviews, stills and archive
material are assembled to support the argument.
7. There is an attempt to persuade the audience on a
viewpoint, in our case we are persuading the bullies to
stop and the bullied to contact the NSPCC.
-Although only making one film John was a film maker
-His theory on documentaries has greatly influenced what we
still understand to be its nature.
-He defined documentary as “ an instrument of information, education and
propaganda”. He believed that documentaries could heavily influence peoples
opinions on a situation.
-He defined the ideology of social integration as “good propaganda” and ideologies
that promoted social division as “ propaganda of the devil”.
-He believed it could be used to engage citizens in the workings of their country, in