Sentence Structure


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Sentence Structure

  1. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Demonstrate knowledge of terms used in sentence construction. </li></ul><ul><li>Use correct ending punctuation for statements, questions, commands, and exclamations. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify simple, compound, and complete subjects. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify simple, compound, and complete predicates. </li></ul>PP 3-1a continued
  2. 3. Objectives <ul><li>Recognize direct objects, indirect objects, and other complements. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify normal and inverted sentence order patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between phrases and clauses. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify complete sentences, fragments, and run-on sentences. </li></ul>PP 3-1b continued
  3. 4. A Sentence A sentence consists of words correctly arranged to form a complete statement or idea. PP 3-2 A sentence <ul><li>begins with a capital letter. </li></ul><ul><li>ends with an ending mark of punctuation. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Ask these questions to determine whether words are a sentence. <ul><li>Do the words make sense? </li></ul><ul><li>Do the words indicate a complete thought? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the group of words begin with a capital letter? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the group of words end with a period, question mark, or exclamation point? </li></ul>PP 3-3
  5. 6. Four Purposes of Sentences <ul><li>Express statements (declarative sentences). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End with a period. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We offer a 30-day return policy. </li></ul>PP 3-4a <ul><li>Ask questions (interrogative sentences). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End with a question mark if direct questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are the new brochures available yet? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End with a period if indirect questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>He asked whether I planned to revise the news release. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Four Purposes of Sentences <ul><li>Give commands and requests (imperative sentences). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End with a period. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct Command </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Place your order within two days to receive a discount. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courteous Request </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Will you please call me by the end of the week. </li></ul>PP 3-4a <ul><li>Express emotions (exclamatory sentences). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End with an exclamation point. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always satisfy your customers! </li></ul></ul>continued
  7. 8. Sentences Have Two Parts Subject PP 3-5 Predicate <ul><li>Verb (action or “to be” form) </li></ul><ul><li>Tells what the subject is doing or what the subject is </li></ul><ul><li>Often a noun or pronoun </li></ul><ul><li>Indicates who is speaking, who is spoken to, or who or what is spoken about </li></ul>
  8. 9. Simple Subject The simple subject is the main word of the subject. PP 3-6 <ul><li>Users can schedule unlimited sales calls with contact management software. </li></ul><ul><li>We offer a discount to our employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Outstanding customer service is our goal. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Compound Subject The compound subject is two or more main words in a subject. PP 3-7 <ul><li>Hudson Communications and Cellular Depot share an office building in the Redwood Business Park. </li></ul><ul><li>Evening hours and free parking interest customers. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus groups , phone messages , and postal card responses are all ways to obtain user opinions. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Complete Subject The complete subject consists of the simple or compound subject plus any of its modifiers. PP 3-8 <ul><li>Most customers comment on our window displays. </li></ul><ul><li>Sales brochures describe our products. </li></ul><ul><li>Free upgrades and extra bonus miles attract some travelers. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Simple Predicate The simple predicate is a single verb or verb phrase. PP 3-9 <ul><li>Tim speaks softly. </li></ul><ul><li>I take inventory once a week. </li></ul><ul><li>Our store hours are convenient. </li></ul><ul><li>We have advertised our sale in the local newspaper. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Compound Predicate The compound predicate is two or more verbs. PP 3-10 <ul><li>I researched our orders and designed our latest sales brochure. </li></ul><ul><li>Our accountant and the sales manager analyzed our sales and recommended new pricing of products. </li></ul><ul><li>Other companies have visited our call center and ordered similar telephone headsets. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Complete Predicate The complete predicate consists of the simple or compound predicate plus all modifiers that limit or describe the verbs. PP 3-11 <ul><li>This short survey asks for your opinions about our customer service . </li></ul><ul><li>Our company has an extensive video training library. </li></ul><ul><li>The reports on this Website review a wide range of customer service issues. </li></ul>
  14. 15. A Direct Object <ul><li>Can be a noun or pronoun. </li></ul><ul><li>Completes the verb by answering the questions whom? or what? after the verb. </li></ul>PP 3-12 <ul><ul><li>Glenda plans seminars for our company. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service companies need outstanding delivery records . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My supervisor praised me for resolving the problem. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. An Indirect Object <ul><li>Can be a noun or pronoun. </li></ul><ul><li>Answers the questions to whom? or for whom? </li></ul><ul><li>Usually precedes the direct object. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually follows verb forms such as give, offer, wish, ship, make, refuse, present, or send . </li></ul>PP 3-13a
  16. 17. Examples of Indirect Objects <ul><li>Dynamic Designs offers me a 15 percent discount. </li></ul><ul><li>The warehouse shipped Kerry the furniture last week. </li></ul><ul><li>Our company gives customers a money-back guarantee. </li></ul>PP 3-13b continued
  17. 18. A Subject Complement <ul><li>Is a predicate noun or predicate pronoun that follows a linking verb ( am, are, is was, were ). </li></ul><ul><li>Renames the subject. </li></ul>PP 3-14 <ul><ul><li>Richard Herrera is a customer service representative . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We are the best sales team . </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. A Predicate Complement <ul><li>Is a predicate adjective that follows a linking verb ( am, are, is, was, were ). </li></ul><ul><li>Modifies (describes) the subject. </li></ul>PP 3-15 <ul><ul><li>Billboard advertising is expensive . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customers are a company’s most important asset. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Sentence Order Normal Order PP 3-16a The subject appears first and the predicate follows. <ul><li>Jerry responded. </li></ul><ul><li>Your company’s competitors hired several young salespeople. </li></ul><ul><li>I received the sales totals. </li></ul><ul><li>We wish you success. </li></ul><ul><li>The training video is free. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Sentence Order Inverted Order PP 3-16b The predicate or part of the predicate is before the subject. <ul><li>There are many compliments about our customer service. </li></ul><ul><li>Here is the latest inventory report. </li></ul><ul><li>Should we offer discounts to attract customers? </li></ul><ul><li>How much will a customer satisfaction survey cost? </li></ul><ul><li>On the Website are the details about our shipping policies. </li></ul>continued
  21. 22. Phrase A phrase is a sequence of words which has neither a subject nor a predicate. PP 3-17 <ul><li>Prepositional phrase: Begins with a preposition such as of , in , at , and for and ends with a noun or pronoun. Does not include a verb. </li></ul>in our call center at our warehouse <ul><li>Infinitive phrase: Begins with to and includes a verb form. </li></ul>to offer a compromise to request a refund
  22. 23. Clause A clause is a sequence of words with both a subject and a predicate. PP 3-18a <ul><li>Independent clause: Is a complete sentence and can stand alone. </li></ul>We send a confirmation e-mail for each online order. <ul><li>Dependent clause: Is not a complete sentence and cannot stand alone. It must be joined to an independent clause to make sense. </li></ul>When you call our customer service department,
  23. 24. Clause When a dependent clause introduces an independent clause, place a comma at the end of the dependent clause. PP 3-18b <ul><li>If the office furniture was damaged in moving , our standard guarantee still applies. </li></ul><ul><li>Because we have 24-hour customer service , we have three customer service shifts. </li></ul>continued
  24. 25. Sentence Formations <ul><li>Simple sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Compound sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Complex sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Compound-complex sentences </li></ul>PP 3-19
  25. 26. Simple Sentence A simple sentence is one independent clause in a subject-verb pattern. PP 3-20 <ul><li>We cancelled the order last week. </li></ul><ul><li>Rachel and I purchased a subscription to Advertising Age. </li></ul><ul><li>Our customers shop online and refer others to our Website. </li></ul><ul><li>The human relations specialist and my manager recommended less phone work and offered me another position. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Compound Sentence A compound sentence is two independent clauses connected by a coordinating conjunction. PP 3-21 <ul><li>Many of our customers are self-employed, and they purchase items for themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Limited quantities of this product are available, but we will ship your order next week. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Complex Sentence A complex sentence consists of an independent clause and a dependent clause. PP 3-22 <ul><li>When a product is listed as out of stock, your order will be filled as soon as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>If your order cannot be shipped within 30 days, we will cancel the order. </li></ul><ul><li>Because I arrived late for the sale, I could not find the items that I wanted. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Compound-Complex Sentence A compound-complex sentence consists of more than one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. PP 3-23 <ul><li>If your order has not been shipped within 30 days, we will notify you of this delay by e-mail, and you will have the option to cancel your order. </li></ul><ul><li>When you receive a promotional code, enter it on your order, but only one promotional code may be used for each order. </li></ul>
  29. 30. Sentence Fragment A sentence fragment consists of words, phrases, or dependent clauses that cannot stand alone and may contain subjects and predicates. PP 3-24 The multiple gift certificates Ordered by phone last week
  30. 31. Run-On Sentence A run-on sentence is a complete sentence with period or comma faults. PP 3-25 <ul><li>I want to order online credit card thefts worry me. </li></ul><ul><li>Your serial number is provided with your product documentation you can also find the serial number by opening the software and clicking on the Help menu. </li></ul>
  31. 32. End of