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Short Story Unit I Notes
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  • 1. Short StoriesShort Stories Literary TermsLiterary Terms Miss MottleMiss Mottle Poland Seminary High SchoolPoland Seminary High School
  • 2. The Five W’s  The 5 W’s  Who? – Who are the characters involved?  What? – What happens?  Where? – Where does the story take place?  When? – When is the story taking place?  Why? – Why do the characters act the way that they do in the story?
  • 3. Plot  Plot is the storyline or sequence of events that take place in a story. Ex. The monster, preparing to paralyze his latest challenger looked at his victim and saw she was chewing gum. We want to know what happens next.  Cause & Effect: A series of events in the plot, where one event causes the next event to happen.
  • 4. Conflict  Conflict: A conflict, or struggle.  There are three types  1. Man vs. Man  For example, a fight  2. Man vs. Nature  For example, a tornado  3. Man vs. Self  For example, a desire to date a certain person might conflict with the fear of rejection.
  • 5. Conflict  External Conflict: The conflict takes place between the character and another person or between a character and something non- human.  Internal Conflict: The conflict takes place inside a character’s mind.
  • 6. Plot Structure 1. Exposition  The introduction, where we’re EXPOSed to the characters and essential details 2. Inciting Moment  aka – narrative hook  Where the action kicks into gear  The conflict is introduced here  Where it starts getting interesting 3. Rising Action  Where the story gets complicated and more intense –Takes up the bulk of the story
  • 7. 4. Climax  The emotional peak of the story –Where the conflict reaches its ultimate intensity/complication 5. Falling Action  “Tying up loose strings” – sorting out the details that are left after the climax 6. Resolution  Conflict is resolved, and the story has finished
  • 8. Practice with Plot and Conflict  We are going to watch a brief music video by the Arctic Monkeys. The video has all of the elements of plot structure. I would like for you to watch the clip and then complete the following with your partner.  Identify the Plot Structure (6 Steps)  Exposition, Inciting Moment, Rising Action, Climax, Falling Action, and Resolution  Identify a conflict in the clip and explain if it is internal or external
  • 9. Somebody Wanted But So
  • 10. Character  Creating Characters: How do we understand how to describe the character’s values and beliefs and describing characteristics?
  • 11. Characterization  Direct Characterization: The author tells us directly what the character is like.  Indirect Characterization: The author shows us a character, but allows us to decide for ourselves to interpret what kind of person we are meeting. We understand a story better when we are able to analyze character.
  • 12. Character  The basic: A character is any participant in a story  3 Ways to think of characters  Static & Dynamic  Round & Flat  Character Foils
  • 13. Character A character can be either  Dynamic Or  Static
  • 14. Static CharactersStatic Characters  These characters stay the sameThese characters stay the same throughout the story.throughout the story.
  • 15. Dynamic CharactersDynamic Characters  TheseThese characterscharacters changechange somehowsomehow during theduring the story.story.
  • 16. CharacterCharacter A character can be eitherA character can be either  RoundRound OrOr  FlatFlat
  • 17. Round characters  These charactersThese characters are many sidedare many sided and complex.and complex.  Usually we seeUsually we see they have virtuesthey have virtues and faultsand faults
  • 18. Flat characters  We see only one side, or trait, ofWe see only one side, or trait, of these characters.these characters.
  • 19. Character Foil  By putting the two characters next toBy putting the two characters next to each other, the characteristic, oreach other, the characteristic, or difference, is emphasized.difference, is emphasized.
  • 20. Character Five Way to Characterize 1. Trait -  a special quality or something special about someone's personality.  Examples: Appearance, dress, speech… 2. Motivation -  what causes someone to act in a certain way. (It can be an emotion, desire, need, etc. A motivation is the reason we do something.)  Example: "Sara was motivated to win the game because she plays hard and had lost the last game to the other team."
  • 21. 3. Point of View - the side from which a story is told. It can affect how facts are shown and how we look at the characters.  Example: "Because Tina told the teacher her version of the story first, I got punished even though it wasn't my fault." 4. Relationships -  the connection of people in friendship, family, work, school, or other activities. How other people react to the character. 5. Conflict -  when characters have different interests or goals.  Example: "My mom and I had a fight because I put a dent in the car and didn't tell her. Now I feel bad when I come home from school."
  • 22. SETTINGSETTING The time and place.The time and place. Often, setting is used to create a particular mood.Often, setting is used to create a particular mood.
  • 23. Setting 1. Setting tells us where and when the story takes place.  Geographical Location:  Example: Rome, Italy; Lisbon, Ohio; San Diego, CA etc.  Time Period: Specific time  Example: Today, WWII, 1832 etc.  Socio-economic characteristics of the location:  Example: Wealthy suburbs or Depression dustbowl  The specific building, room and so on:  Example: a bus, a military base, the living room, etc.
  • 24. Setting for Interpretation 1. Setting and character  Can be used to tell readers about the characters:  "That evening T.J. smelled the air, his nostrils dilating with the odor of the earth under his feet. "It's spring," he said, and there was a gladness rising in his voice that filled us with the same feeling.”  “Antaeus” by Bordon Deal
  • 25. Setting for Interpretation 2. Setting and Atmosphere  Setting can also provide atmosphere or mood. Some make us feel fear or uneasy etc. “During the whole of a dull, dark, and soundless day in the autumn of the year, when the clouds hung oppressively low in the heavens, I had been passing alone, on horseback, through a dreary tract of country." "The Fall of the House of Usher" by Edgar Allan Poe
  • 26. How is Setting Created?  Images: words that call forth a response from our senses—sight, smell, touch, hearing, and at times, even taste.  Examples: “soundless day,” “clouds hung oppressively low,” “dull,” “dark,” “autumn.” What do you imagine when you hear these terms?
  • 27. Other Terms 1. Foreshadowing is a technique used by writers to build up suspense, to create anxiety as we read. Foreshadowing hints at what is to come. 2. Suspense: A writer holds us in suspense by make us uncertain about—but very interested in—what lies ahead. 3. Surprise Ending is one that makes sense but could not have been predicted.
  • 28. Irony 1. Irony: The difference between what we expect and what actually happens. 2. Verbal Irony: when a person says one thing but means another  For instance, let's say you received the worst plate of food that you have ever received in your life, and you said to your friend, "MM! I can't wait to eat this!"
  • 29. Irony 3. Situational Irony: reversing expectations: Occurs when a situation turns out to be just the opposite of what we expect.  Think of The Wizard of Oz. When anyone heard the wizard’s name they were fearful, but when Dorothy and her crew find the wizard, he is just a little con man. 4. Dramatic Irony: withholding knowledge: When the audience knows something that characters on stage or on screen do not know.  Example: Think of popular horror flicks, like Scream.
  • 30. Point of View  Narrator: whose view is the one we share. 1. The Omniscient Point of View:  The narrator is separate from the action of the story; however, the narrator knows everything about every character.  “All knowing”  Uses pronouns, such as “he, she, it, they etc.”
  • 31. Point of View 2. The First-Person Point of View:  Narrator who is part of the action of the story and tells the story from his/her perspective, using pronouns like "I," "me," "my" etc. 3. Third Person Limited  The narrator is separate from the action of the story, but the narrator knows everything about one single character.
  • 32. Other Narrators 1. Unreliable Narrator  The reader has reason to not trust the narrator who is telling the story. Reliable Narrator  This type of narrator proves to be reliable.
  • 33. Theme  Theme: The central idea or the main point of a literary work. Why is the story put together this way? What do all of the elements mean?
  • 34. Tone  An author’s feeling or mood is indicated through word choice.
  • 35. Symbol  When an object stands for something greater than itself