Organisational development b.com vith sem (optional) Bangalore University
Prepared for presentation to
B'com Vi sem in 2014
Source: various sources
Definition: O. D. is a systemic ( Complete) and systematic change effort, using
behavioural science knowledge and skill, to transform an orgn.
to a new state.
O.D. is system-wide and value-based collaborative process of applying behavioural
science knowledge to the adaptive development , improvement and
reinforcement of such organizational features as the strategies, structures,
processes, people and cultures that lead to organizational effectiveness
The characteristics of O. D. are:
1. It is a system-wise process
2. It is value-based
3. It is collaborative , overall Co-Ordination, Extensive interaction and
4. It is based on behavioral science knowledge
5. It is concerned with strategies, structures, processes, people and culture
6. It is about organizational effectiveness
7. It is Research based
8. Emphasises learning by experience
9. Regular feedback
What Is One Model That Drives OD?
Introducing the Action Research Model
16. Have consultant depart
15. Ensure acceptance
14. Evaluate results
13. Implement the action plan
12. Get agreement on an action plan
11. Feed back information
10. Collect information on an action plan
9. Get agreement on a solution
1. Recognize an organizational problem
2. Hire a consultant
3. Investigate the organization
4. Collect information about the problem
5. Feed back information about the problem
6. Get agreement on the problem
7. Collect information about the solution
8. Feed back information about the
GOALS OF ORGANISATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
IMPROVE JOB SATISFACTION AND ORGANISATIONAL
Improve: Communication among employee
Commitment ,self direction and control
Cohesion ( level of trust and support)
Decision making by managers
Employee participation in analysis and implementation
Employee enthusiasm and satisfaction level
Evaluate present systems and introduction of new systems thereby
achieving total system change if required
» Group responsibility in planning and execution
ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
SOME MORE GOALS:
1.Individual and group development.
2.Development of organization culture and processes by constant interaction
between members irrespective of levels of hierarchy.
3.Inculcating team spirit.
4.Empowerment of social side of employees.
5.Focus of value development.
6.Employee participation, problem-solving and decision-making at various
7.Transformation and achievement of competitive edge of the organization.
8.Achieve organization growth by total human inputs by way of research and
development, innovations, creativity and exploiting human talent.
9.Behaviour modification and self managed team as the basic unit of an
I : Better Attitude
G: Better Team
O: High productivity
• Resistance to Change
• Top management may not
• Top management
interested in profit only
STAGES / PHASES / STEPS IN THE O.D. PROGRAMS
DATA FEEDBACK AND CONFRONTATION
SELECTION AND DESIGN OF INTERVANTION
IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERVENTION
ACTION PLAN AND PROBLEM SOLVING
EVALUATION AND FOLLOW UP
Techniques of Organisational development//or
Human Process Interventions
Training and Development
Organizational Confrontation Meeting
Survey Feed Back
Coaching and Counseling
• Activities that entail the consultant or other organization
members working with individuals to help
• (a) define learning goals,
• (b) learn how others see their behavior, and
• (c) learn new behaviors to help them better achieve their
goals. A central feature of this activity is non evaluative
feedback others give to an individual.
• A second feature is the second exploration of alternative
• Act out roles in a realistic situation.
• Success depends on ability of participants to
assume roles realistically.
• Videotaping: for review and evaluation of
exercise to improve its effectiveness.
Part II :
TECHNIQUES OF ORGANISATIONAL
Organisational development intervention
techniques are methods created by OD
professionals some of them are ;
Goal setting and planning
• Activities that rely on questionnaire surveys to
generate information that is then used to
identify problems and opportunities. Groups
analyze the data regarding; their performance
and design action plans to correct problems.
1. Data collection
2. Feedback of information
3. Follow up action
Identify area of concern & associated
Involve client system in survey construction
Analyze data to contrast with beliefs
Present to client group
Use Reflective Learning Model to
• Activities that "help the client to perceive, understand, and
act upon process events which occur in the client's
• The client gains insight into the human processes in
organizations and learn skills in diagnosing and managing
• Primary emphasis is on processes such as communications,
leader and member roles in groups, problem solving and
decision making, group norms and group growth, leadership
and authority, and intergroup cooperation and competition.
Process consultation -Contd…
Select the setting & method
Gather data & make diagnosis
Reduce involvement & terminate ( look for
future approach / development)
Proposed by Blake and Mouton
Also known as managerial grid
Aims at attaining much more than the development and
growth of the individual managers.
It is the technique which integrates individual, team and
This model depicts two prevailing concerns found in all
organizations – concern for productivity and people.
MG helps the managers in evaluating their concern for
people and productivity. It also stresses the importance of
team – management leadership styles.
Blake & Mouton Managerial Grid
o C ) woL(
1,1 2,1 3,1 4,1 5,1 6,1 7,1 8,1 9,1
Concern for Production
Co-ordinates (1,1) – impoverished management
the manager makes the minimum efforts to get required work accomplished as a
result minimum standards of performance and minimum worker dedication
Co-ordinates(9,1) – Authority compliance.
Excellent work design efficiency in operations, well established procedures and the
interference of human element is in the minimum degree.
Co-ordinates (1,9) – country club management
thoughtful attention to the needs of the people
personal and meaningful relationship with workers, friendly atmosphere, high
morale and loosely structured work design or in other words primary concern for
people, production secondary
Co- ordinates (9,9) – (team Management)
Work accomplishment from thoroughly committed people, trust worthy and
respectful atmosphere, highly organized task performances.
Co –ordinates (5,5) – middle of the road management
Concerned with balancing the necessity to get the work done while maintaining
worker morale at a satisfactory level.
Moderate concern for both production and people.
• Peter Drucker coined in 1964.
• It is a comprehensive managerial system that
integrates many managerial activities in a systematic
manner, consciously towards effective and efficient
achivement of organizational objectives”.
• It is a process by which managers, superior and
subordinates work together in identifying goals that
are tangible ,verifiable and measurable an define
each individuals major areas of responsibilities
***The process of MBO
• 1.Preliminary setting of objective at the top
• 2.Clarification of Organisational goals
• 3.Setting of subordinate Objectives
• 4.Recycling objectives
• 5.Performance appraisal
Kurt Lewin & friends – 1946
Stranger lab – people from different organization.
Cousin lab- same, but various departments
Family lab – “Back home” people in situations and problem
It is the most commonly used Organizational Development intervention
is sensitivity training.
It is conducted by creating an experimental laboratory
situation in which employees are brought together, in
groups, to interact in an unstructured environment.
The members are encouraged to interact with new members and new
• Intentional lack of
formal agenda and
power / status.
• It creates behavioural
• It facilitates rich
• Trainer becomes open
non – defensive,
• Feed back received
about impact of other
• Activities designed to enhance the effective operation
of system teams.
• These activities focus on task issues such as the way
things are done, the skills and resources needed to
accomplish tasks, the quality of relationship among the
team members or between members and the leader,
and how well the team gets its job done.
• In addition, one must consider different kinds of teams,
such as formal work teams, temporary tasks force
teams, newly constituted teams, and cross-functional
Life cycle of team
Skills & Roll clarity
Super – ordinate goals
Team building process
Giving & receiving feedback
Developing interactive skills
– Constructive behaviour
– Negative behaviour
• Follow up action
• It is adjustment among people, technology and set up when
an Organisation operates for a long time
• Two kind of change:
1. Reactive ; Automatic
2. Pro active ; planned
MANAGING RESISTANCE TO CHANGE
Reason for /causes of resistance
Reason for Resistance
Fear of reduction in Employment,demotion,increase workload
2.Personnel reason :
Need for training (Employees do not prefer training)
Boredom and monotony (If I larn a technique I will be separated)
No Participation in change ultimately I will not participate in change)
Need for social adjustment
Imposed from outside
Organisation benefits Organisation only and not the employees
RESISTANCE FROM MANGERS
1.Education and communication
3.Building support and commitment
4.Implementing changes fairly
5.Manipulation and Co-Operation
6.Selecting people who accept change