Organisational development b.com vith sem (optional) Bangalore University

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Human Resource Development :; Organisational development for B'com Vith sem Bangalore University

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Organisational development b.com vith sem (optional) Bangalore University

  1. 1. ORGANISATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Triyogi Research scholar Prepared for presentation to B'com Vi sem in 2014 Source: various sources
  2. 2. ORGANISATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Definition: O. D. is a systemic ( Complete) and systematic change effort, using behavioural science knowledge and skill, to transform an orgn. to a new state. O.D. is system-wide and value-based collaborative process of applying behavioural science knowledge to the adaptive development , improvement and reinforcement of such organizational features as the strategies, structures, processes, people and cultures that lead to organizational effectiveness The characteristics of O. D. are: 1. It is a system-wise process 2. It is value-based 3. It is collaborative , overall Co-Ordination, Extensive interaction and Interrelation 4. It is based on behavioral science knowledge 5. It is concerned with strategies, structures, processes, people and culture 6. It is about organizational effectiveness 7. It is Research based 8. Emphasises learning by experience 9. Regular feedback
  3. 3. What Is One Model That Drives OD? Introducing the Action Research Model 16. Have consultant depart 15. Ensure acceptance 14. Evaluate results 13. Implement the action plan 12. Get agreement on an action plan 11. Feed back information 10. Collect information on an action plan 9. Get agreement on a solution 1. Recognize an organizational problem 2. Hire a consultant 3. Investigate the organization 4. Collect information about the problem 5. Feed back information about the problem 6. Get agreement on the problem 7. Collect information about the solution 8. Feed back information about the solution
  4. 4. GOALS OF ORGANISATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IMPROVE JOB SATISFACTION AND ORGANISATIONAL EFFECTIVNESS • Improve: Communication among employee » » » » » » Commitment ,self direction and control Cohesion ( level of trust and support) Decision making by managers Employee participation in analysis and implementation Employee enthusiasm and satisfaction level Evaluate present systems and introduction of new systems thereby achieving total system change if required » Group responsibility in planning and execution
  5. 5. ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME SOME MORE GOALS: 1.Individual and group development. 2.Development of organization culture and processes by constant interaction between members irrespective of levels of hierarchy. 3.Inculcating team spirit. 4.Empowerment of social side of employees. 5.Focus of value development. 6.Employee participation, problem-solving and decision-making at various levels. 7.Transformation and achievement of competitive edge of the organization. 8.Achieve organization growth by total human inputs by way of research and development, innovations, creativity and exploiting human talent. 9.Behaviour modification and self managed team as the basic unit of an organization.
  6. 6. ORGANISATION DEVELOPMENT • ADVANTAGES • DISADVANTAGES I : Better Attitude Perception Behaviour Motivation G: Better Team Communication Co-Operation O: High productivity High Quality Low Cost Low Absentism • Resistance to Change • Top management may not participate • Top management interested in profit only
  7. 7. STAGES / PHASES / STEPS IN THE O.D. PROGRAMS 1. INITIAL DIAGNOSIS 2. DATA COLLECTION 3. DATA FEEDBACK AND CONFRONTATION 4. SELECTION AND DESIGN OF INTERVANTION 5. IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERVENTION 6. ACTION PLAN AND PROBLEM SOLVING 7. TEAM BUILDING 8. INTERGROUP DEVELOPMENT 9. EVALUATION AND FOLLOW UP
  8. 8. Techniques of Organisational development//or Human Process Interventions • • • • • • • • • • Sensitivity training Grid training Process Consultation Team Building MBO Coaching Training and Development Organizational Confrontation Meeting Survey Feed Back Role playing
  9. 9. Coaching and Counseling • Activities that entail the consultant or other organization members working with individuals to help • (a) define learning goals, • (b) learn how others see their behavior, and • (c) learn new behaviors to help them better achieve their goals. A central feature of this activity is non evaluative feedback others give to an individual. • A second feature is the second exploration of alternative behaviors.
  10. 10. Role Playing • Act out roles in a realistic situation. • Success depends on ability of participants to assume roles realistically. • Videotaping: for review and evaluation of exercise to improve its effectiveness. 9-10
  11. 11. Part II : TECHNIQUES OF ORGANISATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Organisational development intervention techniques are methods created by OD professionals some of them are ; Survey Feedback Process Consultation Goal setting and planning Managerial Grid MBO Sensitivity Training Team Building Job Enrichment
  12. 12. Survey Feedback • Activities that rely on questionnaire surveys to generate information that is then used to identify problems and opportunities. Groups analyze the data regarding; their performance and design action plans to correct problems. 1. Data collection 2. Feedback of information 3. Follow up action
  13. 13. Survey Feedback • Identify area of concern & associated beliefs • Involve client system in survey construction • Gather data • Analyze data to contrast with beliefs • Present to client group • Use Reflective Learning Model to • identify discrepancies • explore interpretations • consider interventions • implement
  14. 14. Process Consultation • Activities that "help the client to perceive, understand, and act upon process events which occur in the client's environment.'" . • The client gains insight into the human processes in organizations and learn skills in diagnosing and managing them. • Primary emphasis is on processes such as communications, leader and member roles in groups, problem solving and decision making, group norms and group growth, leadership and authority, and intergroup cooperation and competition. '
  15. 15. Process consultation -Contd… 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Initiate contact Define relationship Select the setting & method Gather data & make diagnosis Intervene Reduce involvement & terminate ( look for future approach / development)
  16. 16. ****Managerial Grid  Proposed by Blake and Mouton  Also known as managerial grid  Aims at attaining much more than the development and growth of the individual managers.  It is the technique which integrates individual, team and organizational development.  This model depicts two prevailing concerns found in all organizations – concern for productivity and people.  MG helps the managers in evaluating their concern for people and productivity. It also stresses the importance of team – management leadership styles.
  17. 17. Blake & Mouton Managerial Grid 1,9 o C ) woL( 1,8 1,7 1,6 1,5 1,4 1,3 1,2 9,9 5,5 “Authority” type 1,1 2,1 3,1 4,1 5,1 6,1 7,1 8,1 9,1 (Low) Best Concern for Production (High)
  18. 18. GRID Co-ordinates (1,1) – impoverished management  the manager makes the minimum efforts to get required work accomplished as a result minimum standards of performance and minimum worker dedication Co-ordinates(9,1) – Authority compliance.  Excellent work design efficiency in operations, well established procedures and the interference of human element is in the minimum degree. Co-ordinates (1,9) – country club management  thoughtful attention to the needs of the people  personal and meaningful relationship with workers, friendly atmosphere, high morale and loosely structured work design or in other words primary concern for people, production secondary Co- ordinates (9,9) – (team Management)  Work accomplishment from thoroughly committed people, trust worthy and respectful atmosphere, highly organized task performances. Co –ordinates (5,5) – middle of the road management  Concerned with balancing the necessity to get the work done while maintaining worker morale at a satisfactory level.  Moderate concern for both production and people.
  19. 19. MBO • Peter Drucker coined in 1964. • It is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many managerial activities in a systematic manner, consciously towards effective and efficient achivement of organizational objectives”. » OR • It is a process by which managers, superior and subordinates work together in identifying goals that are tangible ,verifiable and measurable an define each individuals major areas of responsibilities
  20. 20. MBO – Process
  21. 21. ***The process of MBO • 1.Preliminary setting of objective at the top • 2.Clarification of Organisational goals • 3.Setting of subordinate Objectives • 4.Recycling objectives • 5.Performance appraisal
  22. 22. Sensitivity Training • • • • • Kurt Lewin & friends – 1946 Stranger lab – people from different organization. Cousin lab- same, but various departments Family lab – “Back home” people in situations and problem It is the most commonly used Organizational Development intervention is sensitivity training. It is conducted by creating an experimental laboratory situation in which employees are brought together, in groups, to interact in an unstructured environment. • The members are encouraged to interact with new members and new individual behaviours.
  23. 23. Sensitivity Training Stranger lab: • Intentional lack of directive leadership, formal agenda and power / status. • It creates behavioural vaccum. • It facilitates rich projections from behaviour. Cousin lab: • Trainer becomes open non – defensive, empathetic and minimally evaluative way. • Feed back received about impact of other group members
  24. 24. Team-Building Activities • Activities designed to enhance the effective operation of system teams. • These activities focus on task issues such as the way things are done, the skills and resources needed to accomplish tasks, the quality of relationship among the team members or between members and the leader, and how well the team gets its job done. • In addition, one must consider different kinds of teams, such as formal work teams, temporary tasks force teams, newly constituted teams, and cross-functional teams.
  25. 25. Life cycle of team • Forming • Storming • Norming • Performing • Adjourning
  26. 26. Stages of Group Development
  27. 27. Effective teams • • • • Skills & Roll clarity Supportive environment Super – ordinate goals Team rewards
  28. 28. Team building process • • • • Problem sensing Examining differences Giving & receiving feedback Developing interactive skills – Constructive behaviour – Negative behaviour • Follow up action
  29. 29. CHANGE PROCESS • It is adjustment among people, technology and set up when an Organisation operates for a long time • Two kind of change: 1. Reactive ; Automatic 2. Pro active ; planned MANAGING RESISTANCE TO CHANGE Reason for /causes of resistance Managing resistance
  30. 30. Reason for Resistance • • 1.Economic reasons: Fear of reduction in Employment,demotion,increase workload • • • • 2.Personnel reason : Need for training (Employees do not prefer training) Boredom and monotony (If I larn a technique I will be separated) No Participation in change ultimately I will not participate in change) • • 3.Social reason: Need for social adjustment Imposed from outside Organisation benefits Organisation only and not the employees RESISTANCE FROM MANGERS
  31. 31. Managing Resistance • 1.Education and communication • 2.Participation • 3.Building support and commitment • 4.Implementing changes fairly • 5.Manipulation and Co-Operation • 6.Selecting people who accept change • 7.Coercion

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