Tata Kelola Pemerintahan yang Baik (Good Governance)

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Materi Refreshment disampaikan pada Sharing-Forum KPPU
Jakarta, 13 Maret 2014

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  • 1. MateriMateriMateriMateri RefreshmentRefreshmentRefreshmentRefreshmentdisampaikandisampaikandisampaikandisampaikan padapadapadapada SharingSharingSharingSharing----ForumForumForumForumKPPUKPPUKPPUKPPU Jakarta, 13Jakarta, 13Jakarta, 13Jakarta, 13 MaretMaretMaretMaret 2014201420142014 Tri Widodo W. Utomo Deputi Inovasi Administrasi Negara LAN
  • 2. Urutan Penyajian 1. Beragam Definisi Governance dan Good Governance; 2. Riwayat GG dan Kritik terhadap GG; 3. Indonesia Dalam Optik GG; 4. Karakteristik dan Esensi GG; 5. Bagaimana Membumikan GG dalam Konteks Organisasi & Pegawai;
  • 3. Bagian 1 Beragam Definisi Governance dan Good Governance
  • 4. Beragam Definisi Governance & GG 1 Sumber Governance Good Governance World Bank The process and institutions through which decisions are made and authority in a country is exercised. Inclusiveness & accountability established in 3 areas: Selection, accountability & replacement of authorities (voice & accountability; stability & lack of violence); Efficiency of institutions, regulations, resource management (regulatory framework; government effectiveness); Respect for institutions, laws & interactions among players in civil society, business & politics. UNDP (1997) Exercise of economic, political & administrative authority to manage a country's affairs at all levels. It comprises mechanisms, processes & institutions through which citizens & groups articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights, meet their obligations & mediate their differences. Characterised as participatory, transparent … accountable … effective & equitable … promotes the rule of law … ensures that political, social & economic priorities are based on broad consensus in society and that the voices of the poorest and the most vulnerable are heard in decision-making over the allocation of development resources.
  • 5. Beragam Definisi Governance & GG 2 Sumber Governance Good Governance IMF (2005) Limited to economic aspects of governance … in two spheres: improving the management of public resources …; supporting the development & maintenance of a transparent and stable economic and regulatory environment conducive to efficient private sector activities. Ensuring the rule of law, improving the efficiency and accountability of the public sector, and tackling corruption. DFID (2001) How the institutions, rules, and systems of the state – the executive, legislature, judiciary and military – operate at central and local level and how the state relates to individual citizens, civil society and the private sector. 7 key governance capabilities: 1) to operate political systems which provide opportunities for all people … to influence government policy & practice; 2) to provide macroeconomic stability … to promote the growth necessary to reduce poverty; 3) to implement pro- poor policy; 4) to guarantee the equitable & universal provision of effective basic services; 5) to ensure personal safety & security; 6) to manage national security; 7) to develop honest & accountable government.
  • 6. Beragam Definisi Governance & GG 3 Sumber Governance Good Governance USAID (2005) The ability of government to develop an efficient, effective & accountable public management process that is open to citizen participation and that strengthens rather than weakens a democratic system of government. Democratic governance: transparency, pluralism, citizen involvement in decision-making, representation & accountability; focusing particularly on 5 areas: legislative strengthening, decentralization and democratic local governance, anti-corruption, civil-military relations & improving policy implementation. Kaufman (2003) Exercise of authority through formal & informal traditions & institutions for the common good, encompassing: (1) process of selecting, monitoring & replacing governments; (2) capacity to formulate & implement sound policies & deliver public services, (3) respect of citizens & the state for the institutions that govern economic & social interactions among them. Can be measured along 6 dimensions: 1) voice and external accountability; 2) political stability and lack of violence, crime, and terrorism; 3) government effectiveness; 4) lack of regulatory burden; 5) rule of law; 6) control of corruption.
  • 7. Beragam Definisi Governance & GG 4 Sumber Governance Good Governance Hyden, et.al (2004) The formation & stewardship of the formal & informal rules that regulate the public realm, the arena in which state as well as economic & societal actors interact to make decisions. Can be measured along 5 dimensions (participation, fairness, decency, efficiency, accountability & transparency) in each of 6 arenas (civil society, political society, government, bureaucracy, economic society, judiciary) Hewitt de Alcántara (1998) Exercise of authority within a given sphere … efficient management of a broad range of organizations & activities … involves building consensus, or obtaining the consent or acquiescence necessary to carry out a program, in an arena where many different interests are at play. Processes through which there is incorporation of more creative and less technical understanding of reform, more dialogue about institutional and programmatic change, more concern with the public sphere (state and civil society) and how to strengthen it, more integration of economic policy & institutional reform, more attention to both national & international factors that affect governance. Sumber: Merilee S. Grindle, “Good Enough Governance: Poverty Reduction and Reform in Developing Countries”, dalam Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration, and Institutions, Vol. 17, No. 4, October 2004
  • 8. Bagian 2 Riwayat GG dan Kritik Terhadap GG
  • 9. Riwayat GG & Kritik thd GG GG lahir akhir tahun 1980-an sebagai respon terhadap governance crisis di dunia, terutama di Afrika (World Bank, Governance and Development, 1992) Big government is bad governance; good governance is less government; good governance is better government. Dalam perkembangannya muncul beberapa varian seperti Good Enough Governance (Merilee S. Grindle), atau Great Governance (Jim Collins), dan Sound Governance. Grindle: “Good governance agenda is unrealistically long and growing longer over time. Good enough governance” may become a more realistic goal for many countries faced with the goal of reducing poverty”. Collins: “We don’t have great government, principally because we have good government”.
  • 10. Governance Problem Grand Corruption: State Capture o Leaders plundering state assets (Mobutu, Abacha); o Powerful “oligarchs” buying state officials; o Corrupt leaders colluding with corrupt investors: non- competitive, non-transparent award of contracts (oil & gas). Nepotism and Patronage in Public Service o Political pressure for award of contracts, appointments; o Politicized transfers (South Asia). Administrative (Petty) Corruption & Inefficiency o Bribes for licenses, permits, government services; o Diversion of funds for public programs; o Inefficient and ineffective service delivery. Sumber: Sanjay Pradhan, Improving Governance in Developing Countries, World Bank.
  • 11. Kritik thd GG 1. Sebagai konsep imperalis dan kolonial, serta konsep yang dipaksakan oleh negara-negara donor/kekuatan barat/perusahaan internasional maju terhadap negara berkembang dan terbelakang (Julius K. Nyerere, mantan Presiden Tanzania, 1998). 2. Nilai-nilai dan karakteristik GG sulit dilaksanakan karena selain terlalu ambisius juga tidak realistis. 3. Agenda GG sangat banyak dan tidak memberikan petunjuk tentang “apa yang penting dan apa yg tidak”, “apa harus didahulukan dan apa yang harus diikuti” atau agenda GG dapat dibuat lebih realistis. 4. GG sbg ramuan pembangunan internasional, namun gagal mengatasi krisis pangan global. 5. Secara konseptual seharusnya keberhasilan penerapan GG di berbagai negara dibarengi lbh menguatnya fundamental ekonomi rakyat, tetapi kenyataannya sebaliknya.
  • 12. Bagian 3 Indonesia Dalam Optik GG
  • 13. Indonesia dlm Optik GG 1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 BRN KHM IDN LAO MYS MMR PHL SGP THA VNM PercentileRank(0-100) Voice and Accountability Political Stability & Absence of Violence/Terrorism Government Effectiveness Regulatory Quality Rule of Law Control of Corruption Sumber: Asclepias R. S. Indriyanto, States, Regional and Global Governance, Singapore, 2008
  • 14. Indonesia dlm Optik GG 2 Indek gini rasio (ketimpangan pendapatan) 0,38 tahun 2010; Pembajak software ke- 3 setelah China dan Vietnam (88% software bajakan); Peringkat 102 Kebebasan Pers (Worldwide Press Freedom, 2005); Sumber: berbagai referensi, diolah, 2013.
  • 15. Indonesia dlm Optik GG 3 65 97 98 2010 Good Governance? Indonesia: Asian Miracle Economic Crisis 2004 Consolidation of democracy BR 2025 End of BR Grand-design & Long-term Development Planning
  • 16. Bagian 4 Karakteristik & Esensi GG
  • 17. Unsur / Karakteristik GG (UNDP)
  • 18. GG: from Government to Governance v Civil Society Private Sector State/ Govern- ment FacilitatingFacilitatingFacilitatingFacilitating sociosociosociosocio---- politicalpoliticalpoliticalpolitical interactioninteractioninteractioninteraction Creating enablingCreating enablingCreating enablingCreating enabling environment for political,environment for political,environment for political,environment for political, social & economic affairssocial & economic affairssocial & economic affairssocial & economic affairs Generate jobsGenerate jobsGenerate jobsGenerate jobs and incomeand incomeand incomeand income v a l u e v a l u e v a l u e v a l u e v a l u e Common interest, Shared responsibility among actors
  • 19. Governance dlm Pertandingan Bola State: KONI, wasit, petugas keamanan, dll; Private: pemilik klub, sponsor, agen, pedagang merchandizer, dll; Civil Society: pemain, pelatih, penonton, pemasang iklan, petaruh, petuags kebersihan, dll; Values: fair play.
  • 20. Governance di Pasar Tradisional State: Dinas/PD Pasar, pemungut retribusi; Private: pedagang, distributor, kreditor, dll; Civil Society: asosiasi pedagang, pembeli, kuli angkut, abang becak, dll; Values: sistem retribusi, negosiasi untuk mencapai kesepakatan antara penjual & pembeli, standar harga, mutual trust, dll.
  • 21. Bagian 5 Bagaimana Membumikan GG dalam Konteks Organisasi & Pegawai
  • 22. GG dalam konteks Organisasi Penyelenggaraan Pemerintahan yg Bersih & Bebas KKN 1. Penegakan disiplin PNS di seluruh instansi pemerintah; 2. Penerapan pakta integritas bagi pejabat pemerintah; 3. Kepatuhan penyampaian Laporan Harta Kekayaan Penyelenggara Negara; 4. Kebijakan Antikorupsi; 5. Penyelenggaraan SPIP; 6. Pengembangan Sistem e- Procurement Nasional; 7. Tindak lanjut hasil pemeriksaan BPK; 8. Akuntabilitas pengelolaan keuangan Negara; 9. Pengaduan masyarakat. Peningkatan Kualiats Pelayanan Publik 1. Penerapan Standar Pelayanan pada Unit Penyelenggara Pelayanan; 2. Penerapan Maklumat Pelayanan pada unit pelayanan publik; 3. Penerapan Pelayanan Terpadu Satu Pintu untuk pelayanan utama dan investasi; 4. Penerapan Manajemen Pengaduan; 5. Percepatan peningkatan kualitas pelayanan publik; 6. Pelaksanaan evaluasi dan penilaian terhadap kinerja pelayanan publik. Peningkatan Kapasitas Birokrasi 1. Penataan kelemba- gaan instansi pemerintah; 2. Penataan ketatalak- sanaan instansi pemerintah; 3. Pemantapan kualitas manajemen SDM; 4. Pengembangan & penerapan e- government; 5. Sistem kearsipan & dokumentasi berbasis TIK; 6. Penyelenggaraan SAKIP. Berdasarkan Sasaran Dalam RPJMN 2010-2014
  • 23. GG dalam konteks Organisasi 1. Birokrasi yg bersih, yakni birokrasi yg bekerja dengan menghindari berbagai tindak penyimpangan / perbuatan tercela seperti KKN. 2. Birokrasi yg efisien, efektif dan produktif, yakni birokrasi yg mampu memberikan dampak positif (manfaat) kpd masyarakat & mampu menjalankan tugas dengan tepat, cermat, berdayaguna & tepat guna. 3. Birokrasi yg transparan, yakni birokrasi yg membuka diri thd hak masyarakat untuk memperoleh informasi yg benar & tidak diskriminatif dengan tetap memperhatikan perlindungan atas hak asasi pribadi, golongan, dan rahasia negara. 4. Birokrasi yg melayani masyarakat. 5. Birokrasi yg akuntabel, yakni birokrasi yg bertanggungjawab atas setiap proses & kinerja atau hasil akhir dari program maupun kegiatan. Sumber: Permenpan No. 15/2008 tentang Pedoman Umum RB
  • 24. GG dalam konteks Pegawai Taat asas, tertib administrasi, disiplin kinerja, pegang teguh etika organisasi & etika profesi; Membongkar berbagai belenggu untuk terus berubah dan berinovasi; Perkuat transparansi, buka diri, dan dorong semangat berbagi; Jaga terus integritas diri, jadilah Good Person. Good Person leads to Good Institution Good Institution leads to Good Governance GG leads to stronger development and stronger development leads to stronger governance. GG is a virtuous circle (World Bank).
  • 25. Jakarta, 13Jakarta, 13Jakarta, 13Jakarta, 13 MaretMaretMaretMaret 2014201420142014