Disampaikan pada Diskusi Kajian“Inovasi Pelayanan Publik diWilayah Kalimantan”PKP2A III LAN Samarinda12 Juni 2013Tri Widodo W. Utomo
Fokus Diskusi Apa ruang lingkup/ dimensi Inovasi? Apa pressure for change/pressure to innovate-nya? Apa prakondisi untuk Inovasi? Bagaimana Inovasi dilakukan? Apa kendala/hambatan Inovasi? Bagaimana strategi Inovasi sektor publik (termasukuntuk pelayanan publik)?Pertanyaan2 inilah yang harus diajukan &dijawab dalam penelitian!
Innovation in Public Services• Innovation is a core issue for public services and is akey element of public services reform 1) the ageof ‘innovate to do more with less’ (StephenOsborne); 2) doing more with less will continue tobe a feature of the public managementenvironment (Brendan Martin). Types:– managerial change challenges;– ICT and e-government;– collaboration and networks.Stephen P. Osborne (ed), Handbook of Innovation in Public Services
6 Major Types of Innovation1. E-Government, included initiatives to ease administrativeburden, introduction of ICTs, ‘electronification’ of public services toraise quality and speed, the modernization of publicadministration, etc;2. Administrative simplification, ranging from simplification ofregulations to the restructuring of the public sector or its programsand processes). This includes the reduction of barriers arising fromregulation and overly bureaucratic practices;3. Public procurement;4. Dissemination: A number of initiatives dealt with disseminatinginnovation culture in the public sector & on possible best practices;5. Public sector performance/workplace innovation;6. Participation and / or cooperation between different actors, forexample, engaging the public, private companies, etc. in publicservices or in the improvement of public services.Hugo Thenint, 2010, Mini Studi 10 Innovation in the Public Sector
Forms of change• Devolution of responsibility within each of the above closer to frontline management, often associated with ‘delayering’;• Shift away from management by rules towards management byresults, associated with definition of performance targets & standards;• Devolved budgets, often, but not invariably, including devolution ofresponsibility for personnel and administrative costs;• Competitive mechanisms, both external and internal;• Cost-cutting, applying pressure on budgets, including limits on globalor specific human resources costs;• Increased flexibility of function, mobility and remuneration systems;• Reorientation of career development and training programsconsistent with the trends of decentralization, management byresults and flexibility.Brendan Martin, 1997, Reform of Public Sector Management, A relevant question forUnions in the Public Sector, Background paper for EPSU/ETUI Conference, Brussels,
Pressure for ChangeMichael A. Hitt, Chet Miller, and Adrienne Colella, Organizational Behavior: AStrategic Approach, Ch. 14 – “Organizational Change and Development”.
Pressure for Change• Macro economic condition and budget constraint;• Public attitudes and increasing criticisms of theineffectiveness and inefficiencies of delivering publicservices through bureaucratic organizationalarrangements and the need to search foralternatives;• Higher standard of service quality demanded bycostumers MSS should be upgraded on regularbasis !!
Innovation is most likely toemerge and be sustained if:• Public sector leaders are committed to achieving a supportive culturewhere innovation is encouraged and lessons disseminated;• Innovation is embedded in corporate strategy & adequately resourced;• Staff have the requisite skills, training and development opportunities;• Departments encourage internally-generated innovation and activelyengage with stakeholders to garner external ideas and innovations;• There is a deep understanding of core business, government policy andaspirations, the broader external environment and internal andexternal sources of data and information;• There are mechanisms in place to assess and respond to new &emerging issues;• Departments & agencies build organizational capabilities;• Innovation is appropriately recognized and rewarded.Commonwealth of Australia (2009), Innovation in the Public Sector: EnablingBetter Performance, Driving New Directions, Australian National Audit Office.
Ways of Innovation• Incremental innovations / radical innovations (denoting the degree ofnovelty, in industry most innovations can be considered incrementalimprovements of already existing products, processes or services)• Top-down innovations / bottom-up innovations (denoting who hasinitiated the process leading to behavioral changes, “the top” –meaning management or organizations or institutions higher up in thehierarchy – or “the bottom” – meaning “workers on the factoryfloor”, in this case public employees, civil servants and mid-level policymakers)• Needs-led innovations and efficiency-led innovation (denotingwhether the innovation process has been initiated to solve aspecific problem or in order to make already existingproducts, services or procedures more efficient)Hugo Thenint, 2010, Mini Studi 10 Innovation in the Public Sector
Barriers in Innovation Professional resistance and heritage. Absence or inadequacy of resources. Public resistance to change. Pace and scale of change. Size and complexity. Risk aversion and accountability. Technical barriers. Absence of capacity for organizationallearning.Hugo Thenint, 2010, Mini Studi 10 Innovation in the Public Sector
Innovation Tactics / Strategies• Show Benefits• Social Marketing• Demonstration Project• Training• Consultation• Co-optation (withopponent)• Resource FindingHugo Thenint, 2010, Mini Studi 10 Innovation in the Public Sector• Persistence• Alliance• Modify Technology• Change Regulation• Program CulturallySensitive• Compensation