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Dekonsentrasi Dlm Kerangka Negara Kesatuan Yg Terdesentralisasi
 

Dekonsentrasi Dlm Kerangka Negara Kesatuan Yg Terdesentralisasi

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Implementasi Fungsi Dekonsentrasi Dalam Kerangka Negara Kesatuan yang Terdesentralisasi...

Implementasi Fungsi Dekonsentrasi Dalam Kerangka Negara Kesatuan yang Terdesentralisasi

Seminar Proposal Program Pasca Sarjana
Pendidikan Doktor (S3) Administrasi Publik UGM
Yogyakarta, 17 Oktober 2009

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  • This is the map of Japan, classified into 8 main regions.

Dekonsentrasi Dlm Kerangka Negara Kesatuan Yg Terdesentralisasi Dekonsentrasi Dlm Kerangka Negara Kesatuan Yg Terdesentralisasi Presentation Transcript

  • Implementasi Fungsi Dekonsentrasi Dalam Kerangka Sistem Negara Kesatuan yang Terdesentralisasi Yogyakarta, 17 Oktober 2009 Seminar Proposal Program Pasca Sarjana Pendidikan Doktor (S3) Administrasi Publik UGM Oleh: Tri Widodo W. Utomo 07/264426/SMU/493
  • Kerangka Pikir
    • Bab I: Pendahuluan.
    • Bab II: Kerangka Konseptual Desentralisasi, Dekonsentrasi dan Negara Kesatuan: Suatu Telaah Teoretis.
    • Bab III: Dekonsentrasi Dalam Negara Negara Kesatuan: Perspektif Lintas Negara.
    • Bab IV: Implementasi Dekonsentrasi Dalam Sistem Pemerintahan di Indonesia.
    • Bab V: Studi Empirik (Sektoral).
    • Bab VI: Studi Empirik (Daerah).
    • Bab VII: Rekonstruksi Dekonsentrasi.
    • Bab VIII: Penutup.
    • 3 Pendekatan:
    • Akademik Teoretik  Bab 2.
    • Komparasi Experimental  Bab 3.
    • Normatif  Bab 4.
  • Metodologi
    • Metode: kualitatif eksploratif  menggali sebanyak / sedalam mungkin informasi yg dapat mengungkap / menjawab masalah penelitian.
    • Teknik pegumpulan data: indepth interview, telaah pustaka, studi literatur & dokumentasi.
    • Sampling: purposive dan snowball.
    • Teknik analisis: deskriptif dengan pola penalaran induktif  proses penelitian tidak berjalan linier, tetapi lebih banyak bekerja secara siklistis & berputar (sirkuler), serta berulang. Penelitian dianggap selesai jika tidak ada lagi fakta 2 / informasi yg dianggap baru (jenuh).
  • Pendekatan Akademik Teoretik
    • Keterbatasan Studi Dekonsentrasi.
    • Konsep Dasar Desentralisasi dan Dekonsentrasi.
      • Pengertian, Dampak, dan Hubungan.
      • Sejarah Politik Desentralisasi – Dekonsentrasi.
      • Pembagian / Pemencaran Kewenangan sebagai Esensi Desentralisasi dan Dekonsentrasi .
    • Diskursus Negara Kesatuan – Negara Federal .
    • Otonomi Dalam Negara Kesatuan dan Negara Federal.
  • Pendekatan Komparasi Experimental
    • Dekonsentrasi di Tengah Perdebatan Sentralisasi – Desentralisasi Negara Kesatuan.
    • Praktek Dekonsentrasi: Perspektif Lintas Negara.
    • Pengalaman Internasional Dekonsentrasi: Perancis.
    • Pengalaman Internasional Dekonsentrasi: China.
    • Pengalaman Internasional Dekonsentrasi: Jepang.
  • Pendekatan Normatif
    • Sejarah Dekonsentrasi (dan Desentralisasi) di Indonesia .
    • Telaah Normatif Dekonsentrasi.
    • Telaah Empiris Dekonsentrasi .
      • Aspek Manajerial.
      • Aspek Substansial.
    • Perangkat Dekonsentrasi .
  • II: Keterbatasan Studi Dekonsentrasi & Dampaknya
    • Literatur dekonsentrasi tertinggal jauh dibanding literatur desentralisasi  ketimpangan akademik.
    • Ketimpangan akademik tsb memicu terjadinya misleading dalam memahami dekonsentrasi.
      • Dekonsentrasi selama ini lebih dipandang sebagai bagian dari desentralisasi  Rondinelli (1999), Brillantes Jr. (2004: 37), Smith (2001) .
      • Dekonsentrasi sering dipersepsikan sebagai “lawan” desentralisasi atau bentuk lain dari sentralisasi.
      • Desentralisasi & dekonsentrasi bukanlah 2 kutub yg saling bertentangan secara dikotomis  Work (2001, dlm Gera 2008: 103), FAO (2006: 31), Cheema & Rondinelli (2007), Fritzen & Lim (2006: 3), McBeath & Helms (1983: 34), Eko Prasojo (tanpa tahun).
  • Konsep Dasar Desentralisasi & Dekonsentrasi - 1 Source Dec. / Dev. Deconcentration World Bank is the transfer of authority and responsibility for public functions from the central government to subordinate or quasi-independent government organizations and/or private sector. is the weakest form of decentralization – redistributes decision making authority and financial responsibilities among different levels of the national government. UNDP concerned with the political as well as the economic (and administrative ) arguments. concerned mainly with the administrative rationale and to some extent with the economic arguments. Hellmut Wollman powers and functions (as well as resources) are assigned to sub-national bodies and actors that possess some political autonomy in their own right  full municipalisation administrative functions being done through the establishment of regional or local “ field offices ”  limited municipalisation .
  • Konsep Dasar Desentralisasi & Dekonsentrasi - 2 Source Dec. / Dev. Deconcentration Robertson Work refers to the full transfer of responsibility, decision-making, resources & revenue generation to a local level public authority that is autonomous and fully independent of the devolving authority. can be seen as the first step in a newly decentralizing government to improve service delivery. Hutchcroft involves a much more extensive transfer of decision-making authority and responsibility to local government units (commonly regions, provinces, and/or municipalities). involves an intra-organizational transfer of particular functions and workloads from the central government to its regional or local offices . McBeath & Helms involves transfers of authority to administer programs, provide services, and collect and distribute revenues as well as transfers of much of the administrative apparatus for these functions to subnational governments . involves the transfer of authority to administer government programs, services, and revenues from the national government to the states, provinces, regional centers, or directly to local areas. Deconcentration is entirely within the intricate web of inter- governmental relations .
  • Sejarah Politik Desentralisasi – Dekonsentrasi
    • Gelombang desentralisasi berjalan seiring dengan gerakan demokratisasi  Gomes (2003: 57): Decentralization and democracy are engaged in an intricate dance .
    • Gerakan demokratisasi yg fenomenal di dunia terjadi di Perancis pada 1789, yg mengubah rezim monarkhi absolut menjadi negara modern berdasarkan konstitusi.
    • Desentralisasi di Perancis sendiri mulai menampakkan perkembangan positif pada era Republik III (1870-1940) & dilanjutkan pada era Republik IV (1946-1958).
    • Abad 18 s/d awal abad 20 penetrasi pemerintah pusat dalam kehidupan masyarakat masih sangat tinggi, terutama di Perancis (Cole, 2006: 33).
    • Work (2002: 5): desentralisasi menjadi pusat perhatian pada tahun 1950-an dan 1960-an ketika Inggris & Perancis mempersiapkan kemerdekaan bagi negeri-negeri jajahannya.
    • Mayoritas negara modern di dunia baru menggulirkan desentralisasi mulai awal tahun 1970-an, yg dikatakan Diamond (1999) sbg ” wave of political decentralization throughout the world since the 1970s ”.
  • Pemencaran Kewenangan sbg Esensi Desentralisasi & Dekonsentrasi
    • Bell (1988, dalam Prasojo 2008): “ Negara nasional terlalu kecil untuk mengatur dan mengurus masalah-masalah yg sangat besar, tetapi terlalu besar untuk mengatur dan mengurus masalah-masalah yg sangat kecil ”.
    • OECD (1997): tidak ada 1 pun negara di dunia yg tidak menerapkan prinsip dekonsentrasi ( deconcentrated administrations exist in all countries ).
    • Pemencaran tanggungjawab antar level pemerintahan dapat dilakukan melalui desentralisasi atau melalui dekonsentrasi.
    • Hakekat pemencaran terhadap urusan tertentu tadi adalah tidak dikenalnya tanggung jawab yg bersifat tunggal & utuh dalam penyelenggaraan fungsi/urusan pemerintahan.
    • Desentralisasi & dekonsetrasi sama-sama merupakan pilihan politik yg rasional.
  • Diskursus Negara Kesatuan – Negara Federal
    •    Kesatuan   Federal    Kasus khusus : Somalia secara nominal adalah federal, namun kapasitas pemerintah yang rendah menyebabkan sistem tersebut tidak dapat berjalan.
  • Elazar (1987: 11 dalam Baldi 1999: 3): Using the federal principle does not necessarily mean establishing a federal system in the conventional sense of a modern federal state. The essence of federalism is not to be found in a particular set of institutions but in the institutionalization of particular relationships among the participants in political life” . Negara Kesatuan vs Negara Federal 2001 24 Federal 168 Unitary 20 negara menganut desentralisasi dng ciri federal, inc. Indonesia
    • Lijphart (1984, dalam Work 2002: 7, Baldi 1999: 12) federalisme sering diikuti dengan desentralisasi, namun federalisme bukan prasyarat untuk desentralisasi . Desentralisasi dapat terjadi pada sistem kenegaraan yg tidak mengenal federalisme. Federalisme maupun sistem negara kesatuan dapat berkarakter desentralisasi ataupun sentralisasi.
    • Azfar et.al. , (1999: 8)  negara federal tidak selamanya lebih terdesentralisasi. Namun, terdapat kecenderungan bahwa di negara federal derajat sentralisasinya lebih rendah dibanding negara kesatuan.
    • Work (2002: 11): There is no broad-based generalisation that can be made about the correlation of federal/unitary states and decentralisation .
    • Smith (1985, dalam Azfar et.al. , 1999: 8)  negara kesatuan dapat melakukan devolusi terhadap urusan-urusan penting, yg memunculkan bentuk baru negara yakni semi-federal ( quasi-federal arrangement ). Model ini dapat bersifat seragam ( uniform ) atau tidak seragam ( asymmetrical ).
    Negara Kesatuan vs Negara Federal
    • Prasojo (2008)  tidak mungkin terdapat suatu negara yg sangat bersifat unitaris atau sebaliknya sangat bersifat federalis. Elemen hubungan antara pusat dan daerah tidak bersifat monosentris, melainkan polisentris bergerak dari satu kontinuum ke kontinuum lainnya, dari kontinuum unitaris ke kontinuum federalis dan sebaliknya.
    • Bodo Denewitz (dalam Prasojo, 2008)  federalisme dan unitarisme adalah dua konsep kembar yg tidak mungkin membicarakan satu tanpa membicarakan yg lainnya.
    • Basta (tanpa tahun: 29)  there is no completely unitary state. Every state is at least composed of municipalities as decentralized units .
    • Korelasi antara konsep negara kesatuan dengan negara federal tidak bersifat dikhotomis, melainkan membentuk sebuah hubungan matriks / kontinuum.
    Negara Kesatuan vs Negara Federal
  • III: DEKONSENTRASI DALAM NEGARA KESATUAN
    • Dekonsentrasi: a part of centralization or decentralization ?
      • Centralization : the concentration of administrative power in the hands of a central authority, to which all inferior departments and local branches are directly responsible.
      • Decentralization : the weakening of the central authority and distribution of its functions among the branches or local administrative bodies.
    • FAO (2006: 31): sentralisasi terdiri dari 2 varian: konsentrasi dan dekonsentrasi.
    • Karakter negara kesatuan yg sentralistis atau yg terkonsentrasi tadi dapat dikurangi derajatnya baik dengan dekonsentrasi, desentralisasi, atau keduanya secara simultan.
    Centralization – Decentralization Debate
  • Centralization – Decentralization – Deconcentration Centralization V.S. Decentralization 2 variants of centralization: Deconcentration V.S. Decentralization
    • Concentration
    • Deconcentration
    (Dickovick 2003, Hutchcroft 2001, Cummings 1995)
  • Model Desentralisasi di Negara Kesatuan
    • Sumber: Elazar (1997: 239)
  • Model Desentralisasi di Negara Kesatuan
    • Sumber: Hutchcroft (2001: 39) .
  • Titik Equilibrium Sentralisasi – Desentralisasi
    • Sumber: Kauzya (tanpa tahun).
  • Future Trend & Possibilit y
    • Brooke (1984): “ Probably the most thorough account of the relationship between centralization and autonomy suggested that beliefs will swing towards decentralization unless this is discredited by a series of disasters .”
    • Stoner & Freeman (1989): “ The clear trend today is toward more decentralization .”
    • Hutchcroft (2001): “ decentralization appears to be the most appropriate policy of today .”
    • Fleurke & Hulst (2006): “From the end of the seventies, disadvantages of the centralized administrative system became increasingly obvious .”
  • Deconcentration – Decentralization Interface Model Model 1 : Deconcentration comes before decentralization . Model 2 : Deconcentration is accomplished alongside decentralization on its own field of authority . Model 3 : Deconcentration and decentralization is simultaneously run with varied degree on each side .
  • Praktek Int’l Dekonsentrasi (MENA)
  • Model Dekonsentrasi – Desentralisasi di Beberapa Negara
    • Dekonsentrasi di distrik.
    • Desentralisasi di prefectures , municipalities dan communities .
    Yunani
    • Dekonsentrasi di provinsi dan distrik (sebelum 1997).
    • Desentralisiasi di municipalities, districts, dan subdistricts (setelah 97)
    Thailand
    • Devolusi di unit sub-provincial ( cities, municipalities, barangay / village ).
    • Provinsi masih memegang peran penting terhadap unit sub-provincial .
    Philipina
    • Dekonsentrasi di provinsi.
    • Desentralisasi di communes .
    Kamboja Dekonsentrasi di provinsi. Vietnam
    • Dekonsentrasi di provinsi ( governorates ).
    • Desentralisasi di municipal .
    Tunisia & Tepi Barat
    • Dekonsentrasi di provinsi (Iran: Ostandar ; Yaman / Mesir: governorates ).
    • Dekonsentrasi di distrik (Iran: Shahrestan ; Mesir: Markaz ).
    • Desentralisasi di municipal (Iran: Shahr ).
    Iran (plus Yaman dan Mesir) Model Dekonsentrasi – Desentralisasi Negara
  • JEPANG
  • JEPANG
    • Japan has adopted a two-tiered local administration system consisting of Prefectures and Municipalities.
    • Consist of 47 Prefectures. But the number of municipality is decreasing:
      • Great Meiji Consolidation: Village & Town decreased from 71,314 to 15,820; 39 new Cities created.
      • Great Showa : Village & Town decreased from 9,582 to 2,916; Cities increased from 286 to 556.
      • Great Heisei : Village & Town decreased from 2,558 to 1,044; Cities increased from 671 to 777.
    • Japan has changed from a rural to an industrial urbanized society.
    • Degree of decentralization will be given based on 2 indicators: population size AND economic base (employment center).
    • 3 category of Cities:
      • Designated Cities (17 till 2007): Cities having populations of 500,000 or more.
      • Core Cities or Chukaku-shi (37 till 2006): Cities having populations of at least 300,000 but less than 500,000 and land areas of over 100 sq km.
      • Special Case Cities or Tokurei-shi (39 till 2006): Cities having populations over 200,000.
    • Asymmetric Decentralization : the bigger the size of population and the economic base of a city, the bigger authority will be transferred by central govt.
    • Eg : Designated cities are authorized to administer the same level of governmental jurisdiction as prefectures in 19 policy areas .
    JEPANG
  • CHINA
  • CHINA
  • CHINA
    • The People's Congress of China is the supreme organ of state power . The Local People Congresses at different levels are the state power organs at local level .
    • There are 4 municipalities directly under the Central Government (The State Council of China): Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, and Tianjin.
    • The relationship between central – local govt. in China reflects a model of principal – agent relations .
    • The above points indicate that central government has decisive role and intervention over local government.
  • CHINA
    • Asymmetrical decentralization is to be given to:
      • 2 Special Administrative Regions: Hongkong & Macau.
      • 5 Autonomous Region: Guangxi, Inner Mongol, Ningxia, Xinjiang, and Xizang (Tibet).
      • Special economic zones, and development zones  4 economic zones were created in 1978 (Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Shantou and Xiamen in Hainan province).
      • O pen coastal cities, along East-cost line  In 1984, 14 coastal open cities were created.
      • Inland cities, along the Yangtze River and bordering on Russia  these cities are delegated powers like those of the special economic zones.
    • Guangdong and Fujian Province were given extensive autonomy to develop their region economically.
  • PRANCIS
  • PRANCIS
  • PRANCIS
    • Consist of 22 Regions (excluding 4 overseas region); 100 Département ; and 36.763 Commune .
    • Asymmetrical decentralization is to be given to La Corse (Corsica) Region.
    • In the political organization of France the so-called ‘ Jacobean logic ’ plays an important role. The logic is best summarized by the expression ‘ the one and indivisible Republic ’ which stands for a tendency towards centralization and uniformity.
    • Although decentralization reforms 1982 had a strong regionalist element, they were described in terms of Jacobean logic: ‘ the decentralization would promote the unity and indivisibility of the Republic ’ (Wollmann 2000; Loughlin & Peters 1997; in Edwards & Hupe 2000).
  • PRANCIS
    • In 2003-2004, 20 years after the great reform 1982, a new impetus was given to decentralization, still in the same spirit of consolidation and a search for balance between central and local powers .
    • Therefore, France is experiencing a dual delegation of power : on the one hand to local elected officials, which is decentralization, and on the other to the appointed representative in the region, which is deconcentration.
    • The Prefect is the agent of the state’s authority and the delegate of the prime minister and of each minister in the territory. The Prefect is responsible for national interests, administrative control and respect of the law.
  • IV: DEKONSENTRASI DI INDONESIA
  • 7 Putaran Desentralisasi di Indonesia (1903-2004)
  • What Next?
    • Menentukan locus penelitian . Alternatif: Kalteng, Jateng, Jabar, Sumbar.
    • Menyusun instrumen penelitian .
    • Pengumpulan data & wawancara (pakar & pelaku kebijakan).
    • Menulis temuan-temuan empirik (sektoral & kasus daerah).
  • Terima Kasih! Mohon Kritik, Arahan & Bimbingan Yogyakarta, 17 Oktober 2009