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Programming Basics - array, loops, funcitons
 

Programming Basics - array, loops, funcitons

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Programming Basics - array, loops, funcitons Programming Basics - array, loops, funcitons Presentation Transcript

  • TRIVUz Academy PF03 Class Id:Programming Fundamentals MS Alam TRIVUz Founder, TRIVUz NetworkTRIVUz Academy
  • TRIVUz AcademyRecap PF01 & PF02 TRIVUz Academy
  • Recap We Define Computer & Programming Programming Process Programming Language Inputs & Outputs Define Logical Processing Variables Data Types Define Conditional StatementProgramming Fundamentals If… Then… Else… TRIVUz Academy PHP Operators www.trivuzacademy.com
  • We are going to learn Variable+ Array Array Functions Global Array Loop for, do…while, for each FunctionsProgramming Fundamentals TRIVUz Academywww.trivuzacademy.com
  • Variable+ ArrayTRIVUz Academy
  • ArrayWhat is an Array?A variable is a storage area holding a number ortext. The problem is, a variable will hold only onevalue. TRIVUz Academy
  • ArrayWhat is an Array?A variable is a storage area holding a number ortext. The problem is, a variable will hold only onevalue.An array is a special variable, which can storemultiple values in one single variable. TRIVUz Academy
  • ArrayWhat is an Array?• An array in PHP is a structure which maps keys (array element names) to values• The keys can specified explicitly or they can be omitted• If keys are omited, integers starting with 0 are keys• The value mapped to a key can, itself, be an array, so we can have nested arrays TRIVUz Academy
  • ArrayWhat is an Array?Variable VS ArrayTRIVUz Academy
  • ArrayWhat is an Array?Variable VS Array?In Variable:<?php $student = “Farah”; $student = “Tawhid”; $student = “Jewel”;?> TRIVUz Academy
  • ArrayWhat is an Array?Variable VS Array?In Array:<?php $student = array(“Farah”,”Tawhid”,”Jewel”);?> TRIVUz Academy
  • ArrayWhat is an Array?Variable VS Array?Array will create Variable index like$student[0] = “Farah”;$student[1] = “Tawhid”;$student[2] = “Jewel”; TRIVUz Academy
  • ArrayVery simple array and outputCode<?php $student = array(“Farah”,”Tawhid”,”Jewel”); print_r($student);?>OutputArray ( [0] => Trivuz [1] => Tawhid [2] => Jewel ) TRIVUz Academy
  • ArrayEcho value from arrayCode<?php echo $student[0]; echo $student[1];?>OutputFarahTawhid TRIVUz Academy
  • ArrayChange Value in ArrayCode<?php $student[0] = ”Trivuz”; $student[2] = "Asif Islam”; print_r($student);?>OutputArray ( [0] => Trivuz[1] => Tawhid [2] => Asif Islam ) TRIVUz Academy
  • ArraySpecifying an Array• A special function is used to specify arrays array()• Format of Usage array([key=>]value, …)• A key is either a string or a non-negative integer• A value can be anything• Format of associative array specification $ages = array(“Huzaifa”=>22, “Tuhin”=>23) TRIVUz Academy
  • ArraySpecifying an Array• Here is another associative (hash) array: $ages[„Riaydh‟]=“24”; $ages[„Piash‟]=“21”;• Implicit indices are integers, starting at 0 $student = array(“Koushik”,”Tafsir”,”Eunus”);• Here is the same array written differently $student[0] = “Koushik”; $student[0] = “Tafsir”; $student[0] = “Eunus”; TRIVUz Academy
  • ArraySpecifying an Array• If and explicit integer index is followed by implicit indices, they follow on from the highest previous index • Here is an array indexed by integers 1,2,3 $student = array(1=>“Avishek”,”Mehedi”,”Masud”); • Here is an array indexed by integers 1,5,6 $student = array(5=>“Avishek”,1=>”Mehedi”,”Masud”);• Show output <?php print_r($student); ?> TRIVUz Academy
  • ArraySpecifying an Array• A two-dimensional hash array $result = array(“Farah“=>array(“Bangla”=>85,”English”=>78)); echo $result[„Farah‟][„Bangla]; echo $result[„Farah‟][„English‟];• A two-dimensional ordinary array $heights = array(10,20,30,40,50),array(100,200)); echo $heights[0][1]; // output : 20 echo $heights[1][1]; // output : 200• Change a two-dimensional array value $heights[0][0] = 130; $heights[0][1] = 140; print_r($heights); // output : Array ( [0] => Array ( [0] => 130 [1] => 140 ) ) TRIVUz Academy
  • Array FunctionsPHP provides a huge set of array-manipulation functions  array – Create an array  array_change_key_case – Returns an array with all string keys lowercased or uppercased  array_chunk – Split an array into chunks  array_count_values – Counts all the values of an array  array_diff – Computes the difference of arrays  array_filter – Filters elements of an array using a callback funciton  array_flip – Flip all the values of an array  array_fill – Fill and array with values  array_intersect – Computes the intersection of arrays  array_key_exists – Checks if the given key or index exists in the array  array_keys – Return all the keys of an array TRIVUz Academy
  • Array FunctionsPHP provides a huge set of array-manipulation functions  array_map – Applies the callback to the elements of the given arrays  array_merge – Merge two or more arrays  array_merge_recursive – Merge two or more arrays recursively  array_multisort – Sort multiple or multi-dimensional arrays  array_pad – Pad array to the specified length with a value  array_pop – Pop the element off the end of array  array_push – Push one or more elements onto the end of array  array_rand – Pick one or more random entries out of an array  array_reverse – Return an array with elements in reverse order  array_reduce – Iteratively reduce the array to a single value using a callback function  array_shift – Shift an element off the beginning of array  array_slice – Extract a slice of the array TRIVUz Academy
  • Array FunctionsPHP provides a huge set of array-manipulation functions  array_splice – Remove a portion of the array and replace it with something else  array_sum – Calculate the sum of values in an array  array_unique – Remove duplicate values from an array  array_unshift – Prepend one or more elements to the beginning of array  array_values – Return all the values of an array  array_walk – Apply a user function to every member of an array  arsort – Sort an array in reverse order and maintain index association  asort – Sort an array and maintain index association  compact – Create array containing variables and their values  count – Count element in a variable  current – Return the current element in an array TRIVUz Academy
  • Array FunctionsPHP provides a huge set of array-manipulation functions  each – Return the current key and value pair from an array and advance the array cursor  end – Set the internal pointer of an array to its last element  extract – Import variables into the current symbol table from an array  in_array – Return TRUE if a value exists in an array  Array_search – Searches the array for a given value and returns the corresponding key if successful  key – Fetch a key from an associative array  krsort – Sort an array by key  list – Assign variables as if they were an array  natsort– Sort an array using a “natural order” algorithm  pos – Get the current element from an array  prev – Rewind the internal array pointer TRIVUz Academy
  • Array FunctionsPHP provides a huge set of array-manipulation functions  range – Create an array containing a range of elements  reset – Set the internal pointer of an array to its first element  rsort – Sort an array in reverse order  shuffle – Shuffle an array  sizeof – Get the number of elements in variable  sort – Sort an array  uasort – Sort an array with a user-defined comparison function  uksort – Soft an array by keys using a user-defined comparison function  usoft– Soft an array by values using a user-defined comparison function TRIVUz Academy
  • Global ArrayGlobal Arrays  PHP Creates 6 global arrays that contain EGPCS (ENVIRONMENT, GET, POST, COOKIES and SERVER) information  PHP also creates a variable called $_REQUEST that contains all the information in the 6 global arrays  PHP also creates a variable called $PHP_SELF that contains the name of the current script (relative to the doc root)  $_ENV – Contains the values of any environment variables, such as the browser version  Eg: $_ENV[HTTP_USER_AGENT]  $_FILES – Contains information about any files submitted  $_COOKIES – Contain any cookies submitted as name value pairs  $_SERVER – Contains useful information about the webserver TRIVUz Academy
  • Global Array$_SERVER Keys  [DOCUMENT_ROOT]  [SERVER_SOFTWARE]  [HTTP_*]  [COMSPEC]  [PHP_SELF]  [GATEWAY_INTERFACE]  [QUERY_STRING]  [PATHEXT]  [REMOTE_ADDR]  [PATH]  [REQUEST_METHOD]  [REMOTE_PORT]  [REQUEST_URI]  [SERVER_ADDR]  [SCRIPT_FILENAME]  [SERVER_ADMIN]  [SCRIPT_NAME]  [SERVER_SIGNATURE]  [SERVER_PORT]  [SystemRoot]  [SERVER_PROTOCOL]  [WINDIR] TRIVUz Academy
  • Control Structure LoopingTRIVUz Academy
  • Control Structure Looping Loops execute a block of code a specified number of times, or while a specified condition is true. PHP loops are control structures and you can use them the execute a code block more times. It means you dont have to copy and paste your code many times in the file just use a right loop statement. TRIVUz Academy
  • Control Structure LoopingA basic example:<?php echo " 1 ”; echo " 2 ”; echo " 3 ”; echo " 4 ”; echo " 5 ”;?> TRIVUz Academy
  • Control Structure LoopingA basic example:<?php echo " 1 ”; echo " 2 ”; echo " 3 ”; echo " 4 ”; echo " 5 ”;?>With a for loop it looks like this:<?php for ($i=1; $i <= 5; $i++) { echo “ $i “;}?> TRIVUz Academy
  • Control Structure Looping In PHP, we have the following looping statements:  While  Do…while  For  foreach TRIVUz Academy
  • Control Structure while loopSyntaxwhile TRIVUz Academy
  • Control Structure while loopSyntaxwhile (condition) TRIVUz Academy
  • Control Structure while loopSyntaxwhile (condition){ // code to be executed;} TRIVUz Academy
  • Control Structure while loopExample<?php$i = 1;while ($i < 5) { echo “ I = “ . $i . “<br />”; echo $i++; }?> TRIVUz Academy
  • Control Structure while loopExecutionCode:<?php$i = 1;while ($i < 5) { echo “ Value of I is now “ . $i . “<br />”; echo $i++; }?> TRIVUz Academy
  • Control Structure while loopExecution (Loop - 1)Code:<?php$i = 1;while ($i < 5) // $i is now 1 { echo “ Value of I is now “ . $i . “<br />”; echo $i++; // $i is now 2 }?>Output: Value of I is now 1 TRIVUz Academy
  • Control Structure while loopExecution (Loop - 2)Code:<?php$i = 1;while ($i < 5) // $i is now 2 { echo “ Value of I is now “ . $i . “<br />”; echo $i++; // $i is now 3 }?>Output: Value of I is now 1 Value of I is now 2 TRIVUz Academy
  • Control Structure While LoopExecution (Loop - 3)Code:<?php$i = 1;while ($i < 5) // $i is now 3 { echo “ Value of I is now “ . $i . “<br />”; echo $i++; // $i is now 4 }?>Output: Value of I is now 1 Value of I is now 2 Value of I is now 3 TRIVUz Academy
  • Control Structure while loopExecution (Loop - 4)Code:<?php$i = 1;while ($i < 5) // $i is now 4 { echo “ Value of I is now “ . $i . “<br />”; echo $i++; // $i is now 5 }?>Output: Value of I is now 1 Value of I is now 2 Value of I is now 3 Value of I is now 4 TRIVUz Academy
  • Control Structure while loopExecution (Loop - 4)Code:<?php$i = 1;while ($i < 5) // $i is now 5 { echo “ Value of I is now “ . $i . “<br />”; echo $i++; // not executed } // next code to execute?>Output: Value of I is now 1 Value of I is now 2 Value of I is now 3 Value of I is now 4 TRIVUz Academy
  • Control Structure do…while loopSyntaxdo { // code to be executed; }while (condition); TRIVUz Academy
  • Control Structure do…while loopExampledo { $i++; echo “The number is “ . $i . “<br />”; }while ($i < 5); TRIVUz Academy
  • Control Structure for loopSyntaxfor (init; condition; increment){ // code to be executed;} TRIVUz Academy
  • Control Structure for loopExamplefor ($i = 1; $i < 5; $++){ echo “Current value of I is “ . $i . “<br />”;} TRIVUz Academy
  • Control Structure for eachFOREACH is used in PHP to loop over all elements of an array. The basicsyntax of FOREACH is as follows:FOREACH ($array_variable as $value){ //code to execute}orFOREACH ($array_variable as $key => $value){ //code to execute} TRIVUz Academy
  • Control Structure for eachSimple Syntaxforeach (array_expression as $value) // statementforeach (array_expression as $key => $value) // statement TRIVUz Academy
  • Control Structure for eachExample<?php $arr = array(1, 2, 3, 4); foreach ($arr as &$value) { $value = $value * 2;} // $arr is now array(2, 4, 6, 8) unset($value); // break the reference with the last element?> TRIVUz Academy
  • Control Structure for eachExample<?php $arr = array("one", "two", "three"); reset($arr); while (list(, $value) = each($arr)) { echo "Value: $value<br />n”; } foreach ($arr as $value) { echo "Value: $value<br />n”; }?> TRIVUz Academy
  • Function What is function? How function help programmers? Types of functionTRIVUz Academy
  • Function System Defined Function User Defined FunctionTRIVUz Academy
  • Function User-Defined FunctionIn PHP, functions are defined in the following fashion:function function_name ([variable [= constant][,…]) { // any valid PHP code } TRIVUz Academy
  • Function User-Defined FunctionExample: User-Defined Function to determine a Leap Year<?phpfunction is_leapyear ($year = 2011) { $is_leap = (!($year % 4) && (($year % 100) || !($year % 400))); return $is_leap; }?> TRIVUz Academy
  • Function User-Defined FunctionFunction with user defined argumentfunction function_name ($arg) { // any valid PHP code } TRIVUz Academy
  • Function User-Defined FunctionExample: User-Defined Function to determine a Leap Year<?phpfunction is_leapyear ($year) { $is_leap = (!($year % 4) && (($year % 100) || !($year % 400))); return $is_leap; }?> TRIVUz Academy
  • Function User-Defined FunctionExample: User-Defined Function to determine a Leap Year<?phpfunction is_leapyear ($year) { $is_leap = (!($year % 4) && (($year % 100) || !($year % 400))); return $is_leap; }?>Calling the user defined function is_leapyear Is_leapyer(2008); Is_leapyer(2011); TRIVUz Academy
  • Thank You MS Alam TRIVUz Founder, TRIVUz Academy trivuz@gmail.com