The Opportunities for Minimizing the Environmental Load of PPCPs
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The Opportunities for Minimizing the Environmental Load of PPCPs

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The Opportunities for Minimizing the Environmental Load of PPCPs The Opportunities for Minimizing the Environmental Load of PPCPs Presentation Transcript

  • Green Pharmacy The Opportunities for Minimizing the Environmental Load of PPCPs Nicholas D. Anastas, Ph.D., M.S. Poseidon’s Trident, LLC Triumvirate Conference November 20, 2008
  • Overview of the Talk
    • History of PPCPs in the environment
    • Lifecycle of PPCPs
    • Greening each phase of the lifecycle
    • Next steps
  • History of Environmental PPCPs
    • Interest in environmental PPCPs has been a growing since the 1980s in Europe; more recently in U.S. (Daughton 2001).
    • Federal, state and academic groups have contributed to these advancements.
    • Daughton and others have been leading efforts in U.S. ( Toxicol. Lett ., 2002).
  • Increased Awareness of Environmental PPCPs
    • In the scientific literature
      • Kolpin et al., 2002
      • Daughton, 2003
    • In the popular press
      • AP five part series in March 2008
    • Response of federal and state regulatory agencies
      • EPA
      • States
  • Environmental side effects of medication
    • Non-target effects of medicines
      • Human and veterinary
    • Antibiotics
      • Disposal influences soil microorganisms
        • Potential changes to metabolism
    • Anti-neoplastics
    • Metabolism to more active products
  • History of Green Pharmacy
    • Green Medicine (Kreig, M., 1964)
      • Ethnobotanical approach
    • Green Pharmacy ( Duke, J., 1997)
      • Herbal approach
    • Green Pharmacy (Daughton, C., 2003)
      • Environmental approach
  • Stages of PPCP Lifecycle Discovery and development Manufacturing Distribution Prescribing Disposal
  • Discovery and Development
    • Opportunities for green pharmacy
      • Green chemistry
      • Green chemical design
        • Improved selectivity (pharmacodynamics)
        • Quick environmental degradation to innocuous products
      • Improved potency
        • Enhanced absorption ( e.g., “Rule of Five”)
  • Manufacture and Distribution
    • Use recycled materials when possible
    • Design packaging for biodegradability and recycling
  • Pill Economy
    • Every pill manufactured using green design principles
    • Every pill manufactured is prescribed
    • Every pill prescribed is taken
    • Unused/unwanted pills are recycled or completely destroyed
  • Prescribing
    • Encourage judicious prescribing
      • At the heart of pill economy
      • Need to change the current approach in the medical profession
    • Automated dispensing
      • Pyxis system
        • Prescribing prn
  • Disposal
    • Flushing should be strongly discouraged
      • Environmentally damaging
      • Encouraged for some pharmaceuticals
      • Must provide other options
    • Incineration
    • Recycling programs
    • Take-back programs
  • Take-back programs
    • Reverse distribution
      • Pharmaceutical companies reclaim unused and out of date medications
        • Limited to hospitals and pharmacies
    • Hazardous waste recycling days
    • Returns to pharmacy for residential customers
    • Mail-back programs
      • Maine is a good example
  • Environmental Pharmacy
    • Taught as part of the core curriculum
      • Medical schools
      • Schools of pharmacy
      • Nursing programs
    • Industry examples
      • Pharmaceutical roundtable (PIE)
      • PhATE and PhACT
  • Opportunities for the medical community to support Green Pharmacy
    • Research
      • Support for the discovery and development of safer medicines
    • Education
      • Incorporate environmental pharmacy
      • Provide brochures to patients and medical staff
  • Available Options and Tools to Encourage Green Pharmacy
    • Promote the use of green chemistry
      • Already part of pharmaceutical and industrial chemical manufacturer’s practices
    • Change education
      • Incorporate “environmental pharmacy” into the curricula
        • Medical and pharmacy schools
        • Nursing programs
    • Take-back programs
  • Uncertainties Associated With Implementing a Green Pharmacy
    • Sources
      • Disposal
      • Excretion
    • Occurrence
      • National vs. local data
    • Treatment
    • Hazard assessment
    • Fate and transport
  • Conclusions
    • The practice of “green pharmacy” has already begun
    • Green pharmacy is a holistic approach to reducing the environmental load of PPCPs