In this digital and technological society we live in today, we need our school to remain focused on providing a meaningful education that strives for the improvement of student’s academic achievement. In this presentation, I will provide research based evidence that a technology integrated curriculum increases student achievement when certain priorities are in place. This increased student achievement will help to ensure that our students are prepared to be productive citizens in this information age. Since technology is ubiquitous today, it should not be withheld from our students education.
The areas I will address will be: 1. The development of higher order thinking skills through the use of a technology enhanced curriculum. 2. The benefits of using a technology enhanced curriculum to meet the individual needs of students and their multiple learning styles. 3. The nine proven instructional strategies that increase student achievement and the incorporation of technology into those strategies. 4. Research results showing that technology integration does improve student achievement. 5. What is needed for our school to successfully use technology, not as an add-on in the classroom, but as an integral part of the curriculum.
The integration of technology into the classroom curriculum helps to develop higher order thinking skills. In reviewing three different meta-analysis articles, I have listed some of their findings in this table. In dark blue, you can see that two of the studies have found evidence that technology helps to shift the learning from teaching skills, to teaching complex problem solving. Students are able to learn from something, which requires a rich, complex relationship with the subject, instead of learning about something, which is just memorization. In brown, two of the articles found that technology develops higher order thinking skills. In purple, two of the articles found that technology has an impact on the development of problem solving skills. In pink and gold, researchers found that technology is effective for conceptual development, critical thinking, and becoming an independent learner.
Howard Gardner's work around multiple intelligences has had a profound impact on thinking and practice in education in the United States. There are seven intelligences (shown in the graphic), all of which can be more easily addressed when using a technology integrated curriculum according to the findings from the meta-analysis articles written by Ringstaff & Kelley (2002) and Harvey-Woodall (2009). Teaching and learning with technology creates environments that can more easily attend to individual needs and differentiation. With technology we can reach those with vision, hearing, and speech disabilities more successfully. With technology integrated into our classroom curriculum we have another avenue to reach the multiple learning styles of each child.
Although these next two slides are a bit busy, I would just like to point out that the technologies listed are just examples and not a complete list. Many of these are already available in our district, but teachers may need some in-servicing in order to integrate them into their curriculums. Marzano’s nine instructional strategies are proven to help increase student’s achievement levels. Brabec, Fisher, and Pitler (2004) take Marzano’s strategies and show how technology can be implemented to assist in the use of these strategies. Through the research of Ringstaff & Kelley (2002) and Harvey-Woodall (2009) we need to remember that the use of technology in the classroom isn’t very effective unless it is standards based. It’s amazing to see the percentile gains that can be achieved using these strategies. Just think of the possibilities for our students if all of the teachers had the time they needed to figure out how to incorporate these strategies, laced with technology, into their classrooms.
There is continually more and more technology available to help us increase our student achievement levels. But, we need to remember that we’ve already got a lot of the technologies needed to start reaching our students in this media driven, information age. Take a look at some of the technologies that can be incorporated into the curriculum: word processors, spreadsheets, PowerPoint, web resources, computers, SmartBoards, response systems, electronic gradebooks, email, and the list goes on. We’ve got all of these in place and our students are using these technologies. We need to continue to make strides toward the integration of these technologies into our curriculum, aligning them with our standards and incorporating them into the instructional strategies shown so that we can continue to increase our student achievement levels. This will also help our school to make adequate yearly progress (AYP) toward the national goal of No Child Left Behind (NCLB).
According to Harvey-Woodall (2009) research results, traditional teaching does not engage students. Their findings, along with the findings from Ringstaff and Kelley (2002), show that student achievement is improved when students use technology due to the increased motivation and engagement of the students. Cradler, McNabb, Freeman, & Burchett (2002) find that when technology is aligned with the standards for learning, student achievement increases. These increases are results from the technology assisting students to increase their knowledge, skills, and concept comprehension. They also find that students projects are better with the use of technology. They also found that disadvantaged students achievement levels increased twice as much as the national average when incorporating technology into their curriculums. Additionally, Earle (2002) found that technology integration enhanced student attitudes, learning environment, and if the teacher uses the technology appropriately, student achievement increases.
I have presented you with information on why we should be continuing to work at integrating technology into our curriculum. I would like to finish by showing you what research says about how we should be going about this integration process. Earle (2002) and Ringstaff & Kelley (2002) have found that for integration to be effective we need to have strong leadership. Administration needs to support and model technology use, but also we need to have an active, committed technology committee. These researchers also found that success needs to have a technology vision and keeping the teaching pedagogically sound. In order for teachers to be able to provide technology infused curriculum that’s standards based, we need to provide them with professional development throughout the year, as well as the time needed to work and create these lessons. This process will require the need for resources which our school needs to be able to provide. Finally, research shows that to be successful, we need to be able to step back and evaluate our process, what works, what doesn’t work, and what we can do to improve ourselves.
So, I ask you, “Is Fertile-Beltrami worth the investment?” “Are our students worth the investment?” I think…YES! As you have just seen, research has shown that technology can be used to develop higher order thinking skills, reach multiple learning styles, be integrated into proven instructional strategies in the classroom, all of which increases student achievement. Research has also given us guidelines to follow for the integration to be successful. In this information age where technology is ubiquitous, we need to continue to make strides to educate our children in ways that will help them to become productive citizens. As Rodney Earle stated in his article, “Technology is ubiquitous, the issue is not whether, but how we contend with it.” Thank you for your time.
TECHNOLOGY Is Fertile-Beltrami worth the investment? Presented by Timothy Sykes
Higher Order Thinking Skills are developed through the use of technology Meta-Analysis Authors Findings Harvey-Woodall 2009 Shifts learning from skills to Complex Problem Solving Ringstaff & Kelley 2002 Shifts learning from skills to Complex Problem Solving Higher Order Thinking skills develop Technology most effective for problem solving , conceptual development, and critical thinking Cradler, McNabb, Freeman, & Burchett 2002 Higher Order Thinking skills develop Problem Solving skills increase Students become Independent Learners
Multiple Learning Styles are reached through technology Intrapersonal Interpersonal Spatial Bodily Kinesthetic Musical Logical Mathematical Linguistic Learning Intelligences
9 Instructional Strategies that enhance student achievement combined with technology uses Instructional Strategies that Enhance Student Achievement Technologies Used in the Classroom 1. Identifying similarities and differences (Yields a 45 percentile gain) Word Processor / Organizing & Brainstorming software / Data Collection Tools / Spreadsheets 2. Summarizing and note taking (Yields a 34 percentile gain) Word Processors / Organizing & Brainstorming software / Web Resources / Data Collection Tools / Spreadsheets 3. Reinforcing effort and providing recognition (Yields a 29 percentile gain) PowerPoint / Word Processors / Multimedia 4. Homework and practice (Yields a 28 percentile gain) Teacher email / Podcasts / Class websites / Publisher websites / Tutorial software / Collaborative websites (wikis) / WebQuests
9 Instructional Strategies that enhance student achievement 5. Nonlinguistic representations (Yields a 27 percentile gain) Multimedia / Word Processors / Concept mapping software / Paint software / Organizing & Brainstorming software / SmartBoard technologies 6. Cooperative learning (Yields a 23 percentile gain) Wiki’s / Discussion board’s / Collaborative websites / Interactive software / Group presentations 7. Setting objectives and providing feedback (Yields a 23 percentile gain) Class website / SmartBoard technologies / Online gradebook / Discussion boards / Class wikis 8. Generating and testing hypothesis (Yields a 23 percentile gain) Data Collection Tools / Interactive software / Interactive video programs / Webquests 9. Questions, cues, and advance organizers (Yields a 22 percentile gain) Response systems / Word Processors / Web Resources / Organizing & Brainstorming software
Increasing Student Achievement with technology Increased Student Achievement Application directly supports standards Enhanced attitudes & learning environment Engages students over traditional methods Improved retention, attendance & discipline Increases student motivation Increased skills and knowledge Better designed projects Disadvantaged achieve twice national avg. gains Teachers using technology appropriately
Research suggests Successful Technology Integration Requires: Evaluation Time Resources Ongoing Professional Development Technological Pedagogy Technology Vision Strong Technological Leadership
“ Technology is ubiquitous, the issue is not whether, but how we contend with it.” (Earle, 2002)
References Brabec, K., Fisher, K., & Pitler, H. (2004). Building better instruction: How technology supports nine research-proven instructional strategies. Learning and Leading withTechnology , 31(5), 6-11. Cradler, J., McNabb, M., Freeman, M., & Burchett, R. (2002). How does technology influence student learning? Learning and Leading with Technology , 29(8), 46-56. Earle, R. S. (2002). The integration of instructional technology into public education: Promises and challenges. Educational Technology , 42 . Harvey-Woodall, A. (2009). Integrating technology into the classroom: How does it impact student achievement? Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED505984.pdf Ringstaff, C., & Kelley, L. (2002). The learning return on our educational technology investment: A review of findings from research. WestEd, 2002.