Christian ethics areas of study-2010+


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Christian ethics areas of study-2010+

  1. 1. Christian Religious Detailed Ethical Tradition Area Studies Depth Study Monday, 28 June 2010
  2. 2. Students learn to: describe and explain Christian ethical Syllabus teachings on bioethics OR environmental ethics OR sexual ethics Monday, 28 June 2010
  3. 3. Sexual Ethics- the ethics of sex Areas of study Bioethics-the ethics of science and medicine Monday, 28 June 2010
  4. 4. Sexual Ethics Contraception Homosexuality Masturbation (n.b..embedded videos to Pornography lighten the mood as this stuff gets so serious!! Other sexual Apologies in advance if the ‘forms’ (better descriptor?) humour isn’t your cup of tea!) e.g. pedophilia Monday, 28 June 2010
  5. 5. Idea of the ‘importance of the family’. (Blanket notion that can not be ‘issue’ specific) Sex as a gift from God that should not be abused or misused (across the board for a number of issues within Christianity) Sex for pleasure Vs Sex for procreation Key points to keep in mind Monday, 28 June 2010
  6. 6. Most important is the idea of the sanctity of the individual and our place in God’s creation. i.e we are created in God’s image, our body as a temple etc Monday, 28 June 2010
  7. 7. *Write without emotion or passion….just the ‘facts’ as the question dictates!* Monday, 28 June 2010
  8. 8. Aquinas (Natural Law) posed the question after surmising that reproduction is one of the primary purposes of humanity, ‘What is the natural purpose of the sex organs?’ -reproduction! (duh!) .: any other use/purpose is not human and .: intrinsically evil and morally wrong! One thing to keep in mind during all of this Monday, 28 June 2010
  9. 9. Sexual relationships with homosexuality individuals of the same gender. Glossaryh.htm Monday, 28 June 2010
  10. 10. Yes, this is as brave as I get on this one!!! Monday, 28 June 2010
  11. 11. Key issues seem to revolve around ‘conception/procreation’, the sanctity of the marriage relationship and the issue of the ‘type of sex/lifestyle’ involved Definite biblical stances on this issue The issues Monday, 28 June 2010
  12. 12. Natural Law states that homosexuality is wrong as no children can come of a homosexual relationship. Issue of the nature and role of relationships also needs to be considered and explored. Natural Law Monday, 28 June 2010
  13. 13. Clear biblical teachings (note plural) on homosexuality as being ‘wrong’ in the eyes of God Biblical Teachings Monday, 28 June 2010
  14. 14. “And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof; And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man. And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man. Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh. And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed. ” Genesis 2:23-24. Monday, 28 June 2010
  15. 15. Leviticus 18:22 says: “Do not lie with a man as one lies with a woman; it is an abomination.” Leviticus 20:13 states: “If a man lies with a man as one lies with a woman, both of them have done what is detestable. They must be put to death; their blood will be on their own heads.” Leviticus Monday, 28 June 2010
  16. 16. “ For out of the heart proceed evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false witness, blasphemies: These are the things which defile a man. Matthew 15:19-20 Monday, 28 June 2010
  17. 17. “Because of this [idolatry], God gave them over to shameful lusts. Even their women exchanged natural sexual relations for unnatural ones. In the same way the men also abandoned natural relations with women and were inflamed with lust for one another. Men committed shameful acts with other men, and received in themselves the due penalty for their error.” Romans 1 Monday, 28 June 2010
  18. 18. “Or do you not know that wrongdoers will not inherit the kingdom of God? Do not be deceived: Neither the sexually immoral nor idolaters nor adulterers nor male prostitutes nor practicing homosexuals nor thieves nor the greedy nor drunkards nor slanderers nor swindlers will inherit the kingdom of God.” 1 Corinthians 6:9-10 Monday, 28 June 2010
  19. 19. Also the story of Sodom and Gomorrah (Genesis 19), but opinion is split on the actual message of the story (Jewish Vs Christian, scholar Vs scholar etc) Monday, 28 June 2010
  20. 20. Before they lay down, the men of the city, the men of Sodom, surrounded the house, both young and old, all the people from every quarter; and they called to Lot and said to him, "Where are the people who came to you tonight? Bring them out to us, and let's know them!" But Lot went out to them at the doorway, and shut the door behind him, and said, "Please, my brothers, do not act wickedly. Here I have two daughters who haven't known a man; let me bring them out to you, and do to them as is good in your eyes. Only do nothing to these people, because that is why they came under the shadow of my roof." Monday, 28 June 2010
  21. 21. Catholic: teaches that homosexual orientation isn’t “bad” but rather the ‘lifestyle practices’ are not acceptable. Acknowledges that the development of a person’s sexuality is complex and individual. Issue of procreation is very central ie not an acceptable expression of human sexuality Opposes unjust discrimination in any form The Variants Monday, 28 June 2010
  22. 22. Anglican: varying stances depending upon varying scriptural interpretation. Sydney Archdiocese condemns all homosexual acts Other diocese/expressions are more accepting e.g ordination of gay clergy-Bishop in the US Sydney disassociated itself in 2003 from same sex unions Threatens to split the Anglican Church Monday, 28 June 2010
  23. 23. The prevention of conception by the contraception use of birth control devices or agents definitions.html Monday, 28 June 2010
  24. 24. Something to lighten the mood Monday, 28 June 2010
  25. 25. Methods of contraception-condoms and chemical methods. Can also include abortion Reasons for using contraception e.g sex before marriage, adultery etc Major issue relating to sex for procreation Vs sex for pleasure The Issues Monday, 28 June 2010
  26. 26. Key issue of the place and purpose of sex i.e best within a loving and monogamous relationship i.e marriage ‘Issues’ with this ‘logic’ that need to be (and have been) addressed by religious groups. Monday, 28 June 2010
  27. 27. “Be fertile and multiply; fill the earth” Genesis 1:28 No Christian faith until the 1930’s allowed contraception until the Anglican Church approved its use in cases of ‘dire necessity’ (e.g when a woman wouldn’t be able to survive another pregnancy due to medical issues) Monday, 28 June 2010
  28. 28. Most Protestant groups now approve the use of modern contraceptives (in married couples?) if it stops conception (as opposed to destroying the fertilised egg) Catholic Church - opposes the use of contraception as all sexual acts must be open to the transmission of life - Natural family planning / ‘Rhythm Method’ Monday, 28 June 2010
  29. 29. Abortion All groups appear to disapprove of using abortion as a ‘last-ditch’ contraceptive method as Christians are opposed to the notion of taking life just because its inconvenient! Those that see life as existing from the ‘moment of fertilisation’ also oppose the use of the ‘morning after pill’. Note: Dont try to argue abortion in ‘extraordinary circumstances’ e.g rape (1%) Monday, 28 June 2010
  30. 30. masturbation Im not going to define it for you…. Monday, 28 June 2010
  31. 31. Linked to the notion of procreation and Aquinas’ ‘proper use of the sex organs’ (!!) i.e ‘improper’ use of the sex organs for ‘personal pleasure’ and not procreation Monday, 28 June 2010
  32. 32. Catholics: HUGE problem with it 1) linked to the issue of procreation 2) linked to the idea of ‘improper thoughts and actions’ -idea of masturbation being very ‘similar’ to being unfaithful to a partner and /or the idea of pre-marital sex Many Papal statements (encyclical’s) on the issue Monday, 28 June 2010
  33. 33. Protestants: Don’t seem to have a major issue with it i.e haven’t really said anything against it…. Linked to lack of specific biblical references stating don’t do it? (see quotes) Obviously individual church groups may have issues with the issue of masturbation Monday, 28 June 2010
  34. 34. "You have heard that it was said, 'Do not commit adultery.' But I tell you that anyone who looks at a woman lustfully has already committed adultery with her in his heart." NOTE: Not talking about the ‘end product’ but what cause it i.e improper thoughts Matthew 5:28. Monday, 28 June 2010
  35. 35. "But I tell you that anyone who looks at a woman lustfully has already committed adultery with her in his heart. If your right eye causes you to sin, gouge it out and throw it away. It is better for you to lose one part of your body than for your whole body to be thrown into hell. And if your right hand causes you to sin, cut it off and throw it away. It is better for you to lose one part of your body than for your whole body to go into hell." (!!!) Matthew 5:27-30. Monday, 28 June 2010
  36. 36. “And if any man's seed of copulation go out from him, then he shall wash all his flesh in water, and be unclean until the even[ing]. And every garment, and every skin, whereon is the seed of copulation, shall be washed with water, and be unclean until the even[ing]." Leviticus 15:16-18 Monday, 28 June 2010
  37. 37. This passage describes how Tamar's first husband Er was killed by God because he was wicked. Under ancient Jewish tradition, Er's brother Onan was required to marry and engage in sexual intercourse with Tamar. Widows were not asked whether they wanted to remarry. In many cases, the woman would have experienced the sexual activity as a form of rape -- something required by tribal tradition which they had to endure. Similarly, nobody consulted the widow's brother-in-law about his wishes in the matter. The Story of Onan-Genesis 38:6-9 Monday, 28 June 2010
  38. 38. Their first son would be attributed to Er. Because any offspring would not be considered his child, Onan decided to use a common and relatively ineffective contraceptive technique to prevent conception. He employed "coitus interruptus". That is, he disengaged from Tamar just before he ejaculated, and "spilled his semen on the ground." God was displeased at this action and killed Onan also -- presumably because he refused to follow Jewish tradition. The Story of Onan-Genesis 38:6-9 Monday, 28 June 2010
  39. 39. Sexually explicit pictures, writing, or pornography other material whose primary purpose is to cause sexual arousal. Monday, 28 June 2010
  40. 40. Generally a big NO!! Derogatory to females- ‘dehumanising’ and stereotyping females Sense of respect for self and others Linked to the idea of adultery and pre marital sex Seen as the precursor to masturbation (which is ‘worse’ than the act) Monday, 28 June 2010
  41. 41. "I made a covenant with my eyes not to look with lust upon a girl. I know full well that the Almighty God sends calamity on those who do" (Job 31:1-3). "You have heard that it was said, 'Do not commit adultery.' But I tell you that anyone who looks at a woman lustfully has already committed adultery with her in his heart" (Matthew 5:28). Monday, 28 June 2010
  42. 42. TASK. Compile a list all other sexual Work out what areas you think the official stance is and why Monday, 28 June 2010
  43. 43. Bioethics Monday, 28 June 2010
  44. 44. Cloning Genetic Engineering Stem Cell Research areas of study Capital Punishment Euthanasia Animal Experiments Organ Donation Monday, 28 June 2010
  45. 45. science fiction “Made to Order” or 60 Minutes 16/11/2008 Web Version science fact? Monday, 28 June 2010
  46. 46. 60 Minutes ~13 minutes (copied off their website) Monday, 28 June 2010
  47. 47. “Bioethics concerns itself with the ethical questions that come about in the relationships between medicine and life, the research and practice in these areas and the connections with politics and law.” -Macquarie Bioethics?? Monday, 28 June 2010
  48. 48. Because bioethics is concerned with doing ‘what is right’, there is a major concern with regards to the idea of ‘what is right?’, ‘how is it going to be used?’ (and who controls it?) and who makes the decision on ‘whether it is right or not?’ Bioethics?? Monday, 28 June 2010
  49. 49. The process of asexually producing a cloning group of cells (clones), all genetically identical, from a single ancestor. glossary.html Monday, 28 June 2010
  50. 50. Understanding cloning in 10 simple steps C/ youtube Monday, 28 June 2010
  51. 51. The major issues revolve around the concepts of: • Playing God • How far is too far? (i.e what can it be used for Vs what should it be used for) It is the issue of ‘how far is too far?’ that poses the main area of discussion for bioethicists. The Issues Monday, 28 June 2010
  52. 52. As its a difficult (and relatively new) area, views are divergent across the Church groups. (generally NO) Common thoughts include that cloning is interfering with the ‘natural order’ so ‘purpose’ play a big part in this line of thinking i.e cloning a human=playing God Would/Does a clone have a soul? Individuality? Christian stance Monday, 28 June 2010
  53. 53. Also, the acquisition and destruction of embryo’s as a part of experiments is a major problem i.e more failed cloning attempts of embryo’s than successful cloning attempts+cloned embryo’s are destroyed after 4-6 days! Linked to same line of thought as abortion Monday, 28 June 2010
  54. 54. Obviously the cloning of body parts (for reconstructive surgery etc) poses another interesting problem/issue.. n.b that this different to genetically engineering/modifying a body part….. Monday, 28 June 2010
  55. 55. A technology used to alter the genetic material of living cells in Genetic order to make them capable of producing new substances or Engineering performing new functions. biotechnology/glossary.html Monday, 28 June 2010
  56. 56. Concern about the idea of playing God i.e genetic engineering *can* be used to create (or re-create) ‘new things’ that *may* go against the natural order e.g engineering animals that have been extinct for 1000’s of years Issue over ‘what’ more than ‘how’+ is this an invasion into ‘God’s territory’ as creator? The Issue Monday, 28 June 2010
  57. 57. “Scientists with the Mammoth Creation Project hope to find a frozen woolly mammoth specimen with sperm DNA. The sperm DNA would then be injected into a female elephant; by repeating the procedure with offspring, a creature 88 percent mammoth could be produced within fifty years.” posted: 11 April 2005 Monday, 28 June 2010
  58. 58. A cell from which other types of cells can stem cell develop. research glossary.html Monday, 28 June 2010
  59. 59. Stem Cells that have not ‘developed’ have a great ability to self renew or reproduce. Researchers believe that these cells can be used to repair tissues and grow new organs Stem Cells can be easily obtained from embryonic tissue e.g aborted fetuses hence there is a major issue with Christians. Monday, 28 June 2010
  60. 60. Note: there are now new technologies in obtaining stem cells so the arguments against are starting to diminish Abortions/excess embryo’s from IVF (potential life argument)-> umbilical cord and adult stem cells (grown cells as they are found (dormant) in major organs (e.g brain, heart etc) Monday, 28 June 2010
  61. 61. It needs to be noted that Christians tend to not have an issue with the principle of stem cell research as its to do with ‘healing’ It is the way in which cells/embryo’s are harvested (adult Vs embryo) that is the issue Monday, 28 June 2010
  62. 62. “Jesus went throughout Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, preaching the good news of the kingdom, and healing every disease and sickness among the people. News about him spread all over Syria, and people brought to him all who were ill with various diseases, those suffering severe pain, the demon- possessed, those having seizures, and the paralyzed, and he healed them.” Matthew 4:23-24 Monday, 28 June 2010
  63. 63. Major Task HSC Questions Pick a past question (your choice) -> past papers Two Questions (/6 and /20) that have to be done and submitted. You have 1 week to complete Monday, 28 June 2010