Aboriginal section post 1945


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Religion in Australia Post1945 - Aboriginal section

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Aboriginal section post 1945

  1. 1. Religion in Australia post 1945 -Aboriginal Section Yr 12 Studies of Religion I & II
  2. 2. ✴ discuss how Aboriginal spirituality is determined by the Dreaming •kinship •ceremonial life •obligations to the land and people Syllabus
  3. 3. ✴discuss the continuing effect of dispossession on Aboriginal spiritualities in relation to: •separation from the land •separation from kinship groups •the Stolen Generations Syllabus
  4. 4. ✴outline the importance of the following for the Land Rights movement: •Native Title •Mabo •Wik ✴analyse the importance of the Dreaming for the Land Rights movement Syllabus
  5. 5. Kinship Ceremonial life Obligations to the land and people
  6. 6. Languageregions ofAustralia
  7. 7. The Dreaming lies at the heart of Aboriginal spirituality and hence is fundamental to all Aboriginal cultures and societies. The Dreaming is term used to label all knowledge and understanding in Aboriginal societies. The Dreaming is inextricably linked to the land.
  8. 8. The Dreaming includes explanations of the formation of different aspects of creation. The Dreaming is communicated through art, song, dance, story, ritual and kinship systems. The Dreaming is a metatemporal concept, that is, it incorporates the past, present and future as a complete and present reality.
  9. 9. Physical World Human World Sacred World Simple version
  10. 10. Not so simple version
  11. 11. kinship
  12. 12. Kinship ties identify a complex system of belonging, relationships and responsibilities within a clan that are based on the Dreaming. Kinship is determined by both family relationships and a person's totem and is thus a connection with the ancestor spirits, land and Dreaming. “Look all around all you see is my family” Bob Randall Kanyini 2005
  13. 13. Totems
  14. 14. Aboriginal spirituality is communicated through things such as art, story, dance, ceremonies etc. Totems link Aboriginal people to a particular animal which is the representation of an ancestral spirit being. Totems carry with them ceremonial/ritual responsibilities - these are most commonly called balance rites. Obligations to the land and people
  15. 15. Ritual/Ceremonial life
  16. 16. A sacred site is the land upon which particular event in the Dreaming took place. The identity of an Aboriginal person is intimately connected with that piece of land. Ceremonies and ritual are linked to Dreaming Stories/events linked to the land As the land is a resting place for ancestral spirit beings, there are ritual responsibilities connected with sacred sites.
  17. 17. Separation from land Separation from kinship groups The Stolen Generation
  18. 18. 2:30 Play video in folder
  19. 19. The impact of dispossession has been enormous and overwhelmingly detrimental. The loss of land amounts to a loss of identity and the burden of not being able to fulfil ritual responsibilities. The loss of land has destroyed the system of totemic responsibilities.
  20. 20. The loss of language has made it impossible to pass on beliefs in an authentic way. The separation of families has destroyed the kinship system and has led to a loss of identity.
  21. 21. Protection policies had the stated aim of removing Aboriginal people from unsuitable environments and placing them in the protection of the state by detaining them in homes or on missions or reserves. The intent of these policies was to isolate Aboriginal people from the rest of the community until such time as their culture died out.
  22. 22. The protection policies saw large number of children separated from their families. The breaking up of families and removal from traditional lands had enormous detrimental impacts on the maintenance of traditional beliefs. Land, language, totems, kinship and ceremonies were all significantly affected.
  23. 23. Assimilation policies followed on from protection policies and led to further degradation of Aboriginal communities. The aim of assimilation policies was to take Aboriginal people, particularly those who were ‘half caste’ and have them assimilated into the white community so that their ‘Aboriginality’ would be forgotten.
  24. 24. The term ‘Stolen Generation’ refers to the Aboriginal children who were removed from their homes between 1900 and 1972 by the Government and church missionaries in an attempt to assimilate these children into European society.
  25. 25. Many Aboriginal children suffered maltreatment, sexual exploitation, inhumane working conditions and degrading forms of humiliation in their "adopted" homes. The prohibition on traditional Aboriginal practices meant that land, language, totems, kinship and ceremonies were all detrimentally affected.
  26. 26. Native Title Mabo Wik
  27. 27. The beginnings of the modern land rights movement is usually attributed to the Wave Hill Mob who went on strike for better conditions on a Northern Territory cattle station at Wave Hill. Eventually after a protracted dispute, the Whitlam Federal Government passed the first land rights legislation in 1975.
  28. 28. Land rights legislation benefits a very small percentage of Aboriginal people. Native title refers to communal or individual rights or interests of Aboriginal people or Torres Strait Islanders in relation to land or waters.
  29. 29. In June 1992 the High Court of Australia ruled in favour of an action brought by Eddie Mabo on behalf of the Murray Island people. The court ruled that Australia was indeed an occupied land at the time of British settlement and that the notion of Terra Nullius - "land belonging to no one" - was false in regard to the situation in Australia.
  30. 30. It further ruled that under certain circumstances a form of title known as "Native Title" existed under Australian law. In order to claim Native Title, it had to be proved that continuous links with the land had been maintained since before 1788 and that the Native Title had not been extinguished as with freehold title.
  31. 31. In 1996 the High Court ruled in favour of the Wik people who claimed that Leasehold Title may not automatically extinguish Native Title. The High Court ruled that in certain circumstances Native Title and Leasehold Title could co-exist and that in areas of dispute the interests of the Leasehold Title holder would prevail.
  32. 32. In response to pressure from investors in rural Australia the Howard Federal Government prepared legislation to amend the Native Title Act and prevent any uncertainty. The legislation was called the Native Title Amendment Act and was commonly referred to as the 10 Point Plan.
  33. 33. The main feature of the legislation was to transfer from the Federal Government to the various State Governments the power to upgrade the title from Leasehold Title to Freehold Title thus extinguishing Native Title.
  34. 34. In Summary
  35. 35. Land rights are of critical importance in relation to Aboriginal spirituality, because the Dreaming is inextricably connected with the land. The land is the resting place for ancestral spirit beings.
  36. 36. There are special responsibilities attached to sacred sites such as ceremonies etc. The identity of an Aboriginal person is inextricably linked to the land and hence the land is like a mother for the people. Removal from land means none of the afore mentioned points can exist. Native Title claims are vital to the continuation of the link to the land.