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Types of essays: ...

Types of essays:
- The Descriptive Essay
- The Classification Essay
- The Argumentative Essay

What is critical thinking?

Logical Fallacies
- hasty generalizations,
- post hoc,
- reductive reasoning,
- false analogies,
- begging the question,
- circular reasoning,
- ad hominem,
- false dilemma,
- appeal to popularity,
- non sequiturs


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  • 1. KCZ101 Tutorial Four
  • 2. schedule 3:30-3:45 Roll call 3:45-4:00 Types of essays 4:00-4:30 What is critical thinking? 4:30-5:15 When is it uncritical (logical fallacies)? 5:15-5:30 Homework – complete a draft essay for the next tutorial
  • 3. The Descriptive Essay The descriptive essay – at its most basic – describes a person, place or thing. When possible, students should describe it as experienced through all 5 senses. Sight, smell, sound, taste, touch should be shared as vivid images. B. Johnson, C. Wright 2009
  • 4. The Classification Essay The classification essay: = leads into critical thinking skills = organizes some things (concepts, events, ideas, objects, etc.) into categories B. Johnson, C. Wright 2009
  • 5. The Cause and Effect Essay The cause and effect essay explains what caused a specific effect. = aim is to inform the audience. = aim is to use an objective view. B. Johnson, C. Wright 2009
  • 6. The Argumentative Essay = emphasis on critical thinking skills = a persuasive argument to an opposing audience, in order to change their minds B. Johnson, C. Wright 2009
  • 7. Which essay type do YOU need to use for the final essay?
  • 8. Critical thinking • the ability to properly understand and evaluate the topic at hand. Eg:
  • 9. LOGICAL FALLACIES 1.Hasty Generalizations 2. Post Hoc (Faulty Cause and Effect) 3. Reductive Reasoning 4. False Analogies 5. Begging the Question 6. Circular Reasoning 7. Ad Hominem 8. False Dilemma 9. Appeal to Popularity (Bandwagon Appeals_) 10. Non Sequiturs
  • 10. 1) Hasty generalisations
  • 11. 2) Post Hoc A false conclusion drawn from the outcome, rather than the cause. *Let’s not take Bill on our picnic. Every time we take him out with us, it rains.'
  • 12. 3) Reductive reasoning
  • 13. 4) False Analogies When an argument is based on false/misleading similarities.
  • 14. 5) Begging the question
  • 15. 6) Circular Reasoning
  • 16. 7) Ad Hominem attack • Replacing facts with insults
  • 17. 8) False Dilemma • A fallacy of oversimplification that offers a limited number of options (usually two) when in reality more options are available.
  • 18. 9) Appeal to Popularity
  • 19. 10) Non-sequitors • A conclusion or statement that does not logically follow from the previous argument or statement
  • 20. Essay draft, by next tutorial 2000 Words (+/- 10%) words. *Demonstrate an applied understanding of communication theory *Critically analyse and understand current changes in how texts are produced, distributed and understood.
  • 21. References Essay Writing: Effective Teaching Strategies and Student Act: http://www.slideshare.net/ssubocz/essay-writing-effective-teachingstrategies-and-student-activities-b-johnsonc-wright Image – (7) Ad hominem: http://www.renterence.com/category/thought/logic/ Images – (1) Hasty generalisations: http://e8ulis.wordpress.com/ teenskepchick.org Image – (5) Begging the question www.thadguy.com Image – (9) Appeal to popularity http://xorandomstuff.blogspot.hk/2013/04/fallacies-why-yourargument-is-invalid.html
  • 22. References Image – (6) circular reasoning www.psquare.org Image - (2) Post Hoc http://www.renterence.com/category/thought/logic/ Image – (3) Reductive reasoning: http://e8ulis.wordpress.com/ teenskepchick.org Image – (4) False Analogies: thewritersadvice.com Image – (10) Non Sequitors: jazzroc.wordpress.com