Tsunami, Dec, 2004
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  • 1. D I S A S T E R M A NTSUNAMI,26 DEC 2004 A G E M E N T SUBMITTED BY: TRISHUBH SINGH 2009BPLN017 B.PLAN, VIITHSEM SPA BHOPAL
  • 2. ContentsTSUNAMI ......................................................................................................................................... 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF A TSUNAMI ........................................................................................... 3TSUNAMI DECEMBER 2004 ............................................................................................................ 4 FEATURES OF TSUNAMI 2004 ..................................................................................................... 5 Origin Time and Epicenter ....................................................................................................... 5 No Tsunami Warning Issued ..................................................................................................... 6 DEATH TOLL- ............................................................................................................................... 6 OVERALL LOSS ........................................................................................................................... 6TSUNAMI 2004 IN INDIA................................................................................................................. 7 Andaman and Nicobar Islands – ........................................................................................ 8 Andhra Pradesh – .................................................................................................................. 8 Kerala ...................................................................................................................................... 8 Pondicherry ............................................................................................................................ 8 Tamil Nadu ............................................................................................................................. 8 DETAILS OF IMPACT OF THE TSUNAMIS OF 26TH DECEMBER, 2004 - ON THE MAIN LAND STATES ......................................................................................................................................... 9 RESPONSE AND RECOVERY ..................................................................................................... 9 The following bodies and agencies are seeking public help and contributions ....... 10 STATUS OF RELIEF MATERIALS MOVEMENT ........................................................................ 10 Status of delivery of High Priority Items ............................................................................. 11 Status of deployment of Medical Teams/Disaster Response Teams and Volunteers 11 RELIEF AND RESCUE FOR VARIOUS AFFECTED STATES ......................................................... 12 ANDAMAN ISLANDS ............................................................................................................ 12 NICOBAR ISLANDS ............................................................................................................... 12 KERALA .................................................................................................................................. 13 Tamil Nadu ........................................................................................................................... 13 Pondicherry .......................................................................................................................... 13REFRENCES ................................................................................................................................... 13
  • 3. TSUNAMI (A long high sea wave caused by an earthquake or other disturbance)It is a series of water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of water,typically an ocean or a large lake.Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions andother underwater explosions(including detonations of underwaternuclear devices), landslides, glaciercalvings, meteorite impacts and otherdisturbances above or below waterall have the potential to generate atsunami.Tsunami generated by seismicityTsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. Tectonic earthquakes are a particular kind of earthquake that are associated with the Earths crustal deformation; when these earthquakes occur beneath the sea, the water above the deformed area is displaced from its equilibrium position. More specifically, a tsunami can be generated when thrust faults associated with convergent or destructive plateboundaries move abruptly, resulting in water displacement, owing to the vertical component ofmovement involved. Movement on normal faults will also cause displacement of the seabed, butthe size of the largest of such events is normally too small to give rise to a significant tsunami.CHARACTERISTICS OF A TSUNAMI  Travel at speeds of up to 400-500 miles per hour  In deep waters, tsunamis are low and wide, often less than three feet high  As much as 95 miles between the crest of one wave and the next.  At shallower waters, they get more deadly  Can reach up to heights of 100 feet or more and crash inland.
  • 4. TSUNAMI DECEMBER 2004 On December 26, 2004, the greatest earthquake in 40 years occurred about 150 kilometers off the west coast of northern Sumatra Island in Indian Ocean just off the coast of Indonesia. The earthquake generated a disastrous tsunami that caused destruction in 11 countries bordering the Indian Ocean. The 9.0 magnitude (for 5 minutes) quake created a series of tsunamis thatcaused great destruction and loss of life throughout the Indian Ocean basin, within severalhours of the initial event.
  • 5. The earthquake has been titled the Sumatra-Andaman Islands Earthquake and is the highestmagnitude earthquake in the region in over 40 years. Over 227,898 people have beenconfirmed dead making this the fourth largest death toll from an earthquake in recorded history.Several years after the quake and tsunami events, the entire region is still trying to recover andto rebuild. Some areas will never recover.FEATURES OF TSUNAMI 2004 1. The December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was caused by an earthquake that is thought to have had the energy of 23,000 atomic bombs. 2. The epicenter of the 9.0 magnitude quake was under the Indian Ocean near the west coast of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. 3. The violent movement of sections of the Earth’s crusts known as tectonic plates displaced an enormous amount of water, sending powerful shock waves in every direction. 4. The tectonic plates in this area had been pushing against each other, building pressure for thousands of years – they continue to do so and will likely cause underwater earthquakes and tsunamis in the future. 5. The shifting of the earth’s plates in the Indian Ocean on December 26, 2004 caused a rupture more than 600 miles long, displacing the seafloor above the rupture by perhaps 10 yards horizontally and several yards vertically. That doesnt sound like much, but the trillions of tons of rock that were moved along hundreds of miles caused the planet to shudder with the largest magnitude earthquake in 40 years. 6. Within hours of the earthquake, killer waves radiating from the epicenter slammed into the coastline of 11 Indian Ocean countries, damaging countries from east Africa to Thailand. 7. Despite a lag of up to several hours between the earthquake and the impact of the tsunami, nearly all of the victims were taken completely by surprise because there were no tsunami warning systems in the Indian Ocean to detect tsunamis or to warn the general populace living around the ocean. 8. By the end of the day of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, it had already killed 150,000 people. The final death toll was 283,000. 9. The Indian Ocean tsunami traveled as far as 3,000 miles to Africa and still arrived with sufficient force to kill people and destroy property. 10. Many people in Indonesian reported that they saw animals fleeing for high ground minutes before the tsunami arrived – very few animal bodies were found afterward. 11. The risk of famine and epidemic diseases was extremely high immediately following the tsunami – bodies rotting in the tropical heat contaminated food and water sources.Origin Time and EpicenterThe great tsunamigenic earthquake occurred on Sunday, 26 December 2004, at 00:58:50 UTC(6:58:50 a.m. local time). The epicenter was at 3.298 N, 95.779 E and its focal depth was veryshallow (much less than 33 km - possibly about 10km).
  • 6. No Tsunami Warning Issued The large tsunami which struck 11 of the nations that border the Indian Ocean was a complete surprise for the people living there, but not for the scientists who are aware of the tectonic interactions in the region. Many seismic networks recorded the massive earthquake, but there was no tide gauges or other wave sensors to provide confirmation as to whether a tsunami had been generated. There was no established communications network or organizational infastructure to pass a warning of any kind to the people coastlines. No Tsunami Warning System exists for the Indian Ocean as there is for the Pacific. The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center in Honolulu had no way of providing warning information to the region. DEATH TOLL-COUNTRY DISPLACED DEAD MISSING INJURE HOUSING TOTAL NET – D DESTROY/ DAMAGE TOTAL DAMAGE AND AFFECTE D LOSSES DINDIA 650,000 16,389 N/ S 6913 100,000 2.1 Billion 654,512INDONESIA 532,898 165,708 N/S N/S N/S 4451.6 523,898 MillionMALDIVES 13000 102 N/S 2214 N/S 470.1 27,214 MillionSRI LANKA 480,000 35,399 N/S 23176 114,069 1316.5 1,019,306 MillionTHAILAND N/S 8,345 N/S 8,457 4,806 405.2 67,007 MillionMYANMAR N/S 71 N/S N/S N/S 500 Million 12,500SOMANIA N/S 298 N/S 283 N/S 100 Million 105,083 The hardest-hit and most severely affected countries were India, Indonesia, Maldives, Sri Lanka and Thailand. Malaysia, Myanmar, Seychelles, Somalia and the United Republic of Tanzania were also affected. OVERALL LOSS Total damages are estimated to be US$470 million, 62% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Of these losses, direct losses are US$298 million,or about 8% of the replacement cost of the national capital stock. Severe damage was caused to houses, tourist resorts, boats and other fishing equipment, schools, health facilities, transport and communication equipment, water and sanitation, and electricity infrastructure.
  • 7. TSUNAMI 2004 IN INDIAThe estimated number of casualties in India is 16,000, but at least 6,000 more are missing. It isexpected that the death toll will rise. Hardest hit were the Andaman and Nicobar Islands whichwere close to the tsunami generating area. Along Indias southeastern coast, several villages
  • 8. were swept away, and thousands of fishermen at sea were missing. On the western coast ofIndia mainland, hardest hit was the state of Tamil Nadu.The southern peninsular region comprising Kerala and partof Tamil Nadu on the west coast and the rest of TamilNadu, Andhra Pradesh, and Pondicherry on the east coastis a region of low-to-moderate seismicity. The area lies inthe Stable Continental Region, which is not believed to beexposed to the hazard of strong earthquakes. Thestrongest known earthquake in the regionMAGNITUDE=6.0 occurred on 8 February 1900 nearCoimbatore and had a maximum intensity of VII.Andaman and Nicobar Islands –The tsunami hit hard the Andaman and Nicobar group which comprises of a total of 572 islandsof which 38 were significantly inhabited.The waves literally washed away some of these islands,and there were reports that the island of Trinket had split in two. The Great Nicobar and CarNicobar were the worst hit among all the southern Nicobar Islands because of their proximity tothe earthquakes epicenter and relative low topography. The maximum tsunami wave reached aheight of 15m. One fifth of the population of the Nicobar Islands is said to be dead, injured ormissing. Chowra Island lost two thirds of its population of 1,500.Andhra Pradesh –There was significant loss of life and destruction. The affected districts were Krishna,Prakasam, Nellore, Guntur, West Godavari and East Godavari.Kerala –The tsunami killed many people (official toll 168) and caused extensive destruction particularlyat Kollam (131 dead), Alappuzha (32) and Ernakulam (5) were also affected.Pondicherry –In the Union territory of Pondicherry, the affected districts were Pondicherry (107 dead),Karaikal (453 dead). The latest official toll was 560. An estimated 30,000 people were renderedhomeless .Tamil Nadu –The tsunami had a great impact on the state of Tamil Nadu on Indias mainland with entirecoastal villages destroyed. The overall death toll in the state was 7,793. The Nagapattinamdistrict had 5,525 casualties. The latest reported death toll at Velankanni was 1,500.Kanyakumari district has had 808 deaths, Cuddalore district 599, the state capital Chennai 206and Kancheepuram district 124. The death tolls in other districts were Pudukkottai (15),Ramanathapuram (6), Tirunelveli (4), Thoothukudi (3), Tiruvallur (28), Thanjavur (22), Tiruvarur(10) and Viluppuram (47). The nuclear power plant at Kalpakkam was shut down after sea waterrushed into a pump station. No radiation leak or damage to the reactor was reported.
  • 9. DETAILS OF IMPACT OF THE TSUNAMIS OF 26TH DECEMBER, 2004 - ONTHE MAIN LAND STATESDetails Andhra Kerala Tamil Pondicherry Total Pradesh NaduCoastal Length 985 250 1000 25 2260affected in KmPenetration of water 0.50-2.0 1-2 1-1.5 0.30-3.0into main land in Km.Average height of the 5 Mtrs. 3-5 Mtrs. 7-10 Mtrs. 10 Mtrs.tidal waveNo. of Villages affected 301 187 373 33 894Population affected (in 2.11 24.70 8.85 0.43 36.09lakh)Dwelling units 1557 17381 124227 10061 153226Cattle lost 195 NR 5477 506 6178Cropped area (Ha) 790 NR 2589 792 4171RESPONSE AND RECOVERYThe Ex-Gratia Fund, are payments made without an obligation to pay; which offersinstitutions/companies the opportunity to commit funds into an account to cater for conditions.Additional benefits i.e. optical and dental benefits, or any other services as per the clientsspecifications can also be enjoyed from this fund. Ex GratiaS.No. Government Ex gratia  The Prime Minister has announced an ex-gratia payment of Rs. 1,00,000 (one lakh rupees) to the next of kin of each deceased.1 Government of India  The ex-gratia payment will be made from the Prime Minister’s National Relief Fund. State Government of The Chief Minister has announced an ex-gratia payment of Rs.1,00,0002 Tamil Nadu (one lakh) to the families of each of the victims.
  • 10.  Ex gratia of Rs. 50,000 to the next kin of those killed. State Government of3  Assistance of Rs. 10,000 for the families of the deceased, to Kerala meet the funeral expenses.  The Chief Minister N Rangasamy has announced an ex gratia of Rs 1,00,000 (one lakh) to the next of kin of the dead.  The administration would also pay an ex gratia of Rs 5000 Union Territory of towards funeral expenditure.4 Pondicherry  For those injured in the disaster, the administration would provide Rs 5000.  A sum of Rs 10,000 to enable the homeless to reconstruct houses.The following bodies and agencies are seeking public help and contributions:  Indian Prime Ministers National Relief Fund  The Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh has issued an appeal for contributions.  International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies donation  International Committee of the Red Cross donation page  The Hindu Relief Fund  Tamil Nadu Chief Ministers Public Relief Fund  NDTVs trust fund  A listing of News and information about resources, aid, donations and volunteer efforts by a volunteer team of bloggers. Fresh information can be posted here.  A blog of India-related relief efforts  Volunteers for India Development and Empowerment  requests on-line donations to provide for immediate relief to disaster victims  A list of relief efforts in India for tidal wave relief  Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur is also reaching out to stand by its fellow citizens.  Site run by the South Indian Federation of Fishermen Societies (SIFFS)An amount of Rs. 895.42 crore has been earmaked for Tsunami Relief and RehabilitationSchemesSTATUS OF RELIEF MATERIALS MOVEMENTItem Total resources Already Lifted/ Planned for mobilized (in Delivered (in Delivered dispatch/deliveryM MT) MT)-3rd Jan, on 3rd Jan2 T 2005 005Food items 285.61 226.01 23.60 59.60Water 291.98 248.98 51.80 43.00Emergency 93.83 61.63 2.80 32.20medicines/disinfectantTentage 389.65 188.95 0.90 200.70
  • 11. Clothing 210.84 150.84 64.00 60.00Lighting 18.76 18.75 0.00 0.01materialDiesel Gen. 139.60 105.60 14.62 34.00Sets./pumpHouse hold 5.50 5.50 2.00 0.00itemsEquip. & 459.09 371.09 218.09 88.00MachineryTotal 1894.85 1377.34 377.81 517.51Status of delivery of High Priority ItemsItem Quantity Dispatched/ Planned for dispatch already delivered as on 04.01.05 delivered 03.01.05Water (MT) 249 52 50Food 19 14 15Packets(MT)Food Stuff (MT) 206 10 90Small Tents 7157 18 300(No.)Large Tents 641 0 50(No.)Torches 26563 0 00Generators 635 29 100Pump Sets 82 7 10Status of deployment of Medical Teams/Disaster Response Teams andVolunteersType (number of persons) Mobilized DeployedSpecialized Medical 148 148Intervention TeamsDisaster Response Teams 2222 1944Disaster Volunteers Teams 100 50Total 2470 2142
  • 12. RELIEF AND RESCUE FOR VARIOUS AFFECTED STATES ANDAMAN ISLANDS Relief measures by UT Administration are continuing. 11 Relief camps have been opened in Andaman district. There is sufficient drinking water supply in Port Blair and water is being air dropped in other Islands . 11 more ships of Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport & Highways are scheduled from Chennai, Visakhapatnam and Kolkatta carrying the passengers and relief materials. 400 pieces of Poly Roll is being provided by West Bengal and dispatch is being lined up. Indian Coast Guard has deployed 19 Ships, provided 67.3 MT of relief materials and has established 6 medical camps and provided medical relief to more than 2350 people. 6 MT water, 3 MT milk powder and 1 MT sugar wasdispatched by Blue Dart Aircraft on 03.1.2005 from Karnataka for A&N Islands.NICOBAR ISLANDSOf the 38 inhabited islands, 30 islands are affected. 14 Ships of Navy and Coast Guards and 16Aircrafts fixed wings/Helicopters have been pressed in to service for relief and rescue work.Mass cremation/burial of deadbodies is being undertaken onday-to-day basis. BSFPersonnel have disposed off150 dead bodies, moved 3000persons to safer places andprovided medical treatment to210 persons in Katchal 1268persons have been evacuatedfrom Chowra. All dead bodieshave been disposed off. Airdropping of (food packets,Drinking water, emergencymedicines, household kits,milk etc.) to affected Islands iscontinuing. 3 relief camps inKamorta, 8 in Car Nicobar, 01in Teressa have been opened. 4 adhoc camps have also been opened at Campbell Bay . Relief
  • 13. materials are being distributed with the help of Defence personnel, CPMFs and volunteersincluding some NGOs.KERALA Relief operations are continuing and Army, Navy and Coast Guards have been assisting thelocal administration. The priority being accorded to supply of fumigation and disinfectant inaffected areas to avoid outbreak of epidemics. Roads have been cleared and supply of drinkinghas been restored. Adequate medical arrangements have been made. State Government hasdeployed 224 doctors in the affected areas. The situation has improved considerably.Tamil NaduRelief operations are continuing and Army, Navy and Coast Guards have been assisting thelocal administration. Two Chetak Helicopters, Two Dornier Aircrafts, Indian Naval ships and oneCoast Guard helicopters were deployed at Nagipattnam. Union Health Minister is camping atChennai and coordinating with the State authorities for providing medical relief and preventoutbreak of epidemics.PondicherryRelief operations are continuing and Army and Navy have been assisting the localadministration. One ship of Coast Guard is also engaged in relief and rescue operations inKarikal area. 4,95000 food packets, 42000 water bottles, 26,371 Blankets, 28,742 Sarees,25742 Dhotis, 25742 Towels and 275.62 MT of rice have been distributed to the victims till 3rdJanuary 2005. REFRENCES  http://www.dosomething.org/tipsandtools/11-facts-about-2004-indian-ocean- tsunami - NATIONAL GEOGRAPHY  http://library.buffalo.edu/asl/guides/indian-ocean-disaster.html - UNIVERSITY AT BUFFALO  http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/world/2009-08/19/content_8589535.htm - china daily  http://www.recoveryplatform.org/countries_and_disasters/disaster/15/indian_ocea n_tsunami_2004  http://www.emdat.be/search-details-disaster-list