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Special Education Laws and Strategies in the general education classroom Patricia Blankenship ESE 631 Survey of the Exceptional Child Instructor: Analisa Smith 10/14/12
Overview of IDEA, Least Restrictive Environment (LRE), and Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) "The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires public schools to locate andidentify children with disabilities who may be in need of specialized education"(Wrightslaw).This is an educational law to provide federal financial assistance to State and local education agenciesto provide special education and services to children who are eligible for the program.. Idea alsorequires an IEP in place for student when enrolled in Special Education program. FAPE is short for "Provide A Free, Appropriate Public Education"providing special education andservices for all children,at no cost to the parents for children with disabilities.Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)"LRE means that a student who has a disability should have theopportunity to be educated with their peers, to the greatest extent possible,and should have access to thegeneral education curriculum, extracurricular activities, or any other program that their peers would beable to access"(Law & Legal).The laws are constantly changing and teachers and faculty need to stayup to date on the changes made with the laws to provide the best assistance for the students.
"This is a pie chart titled "Percentage of Students with Disabilities ReceivingSpecial Education Services, by Type of Disability." It is divided into sevensegments, with the divisions as follows: 38% Learning Disabilities; 23% Speechand Language Impairments; 11% Other Health Impairments; 7% IntellectualDisabilities (formerly mental retardation); 6% Emotional Disturbance; 5% Autism;10% All Other Disabilities."https://www.osep-meeting.org/2011conf/presentations/Breakouts/Tue_PM-35yrEdChildwDisabilities/markowitz.htm
The purpose and main components of an Individualized Education Program (IEP) "The IEP has two general purposes: (1) to establish measurable annual goals for the child; and (2)to state the special education and related services and supplementary aids and services that the publicagency will provide to, or on behalf of, the child, the IEP team broadly considers the child’sinvolvement and participation in three main areas of school life:the general educationcurriculum,extracurricular activities, and nonacademic activities"(Contents of the IEP 2010) The main components of an IEP should include the following:Academic Performance,goals and objectives,how will school meet the goals,services and supports forthe student,what type of assessments will be used for the student,and finally location of services andduration of services.
Accommodations and modifications that could support students with disabilities in the classroom The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires that an Individualized EducationProgram (IEP) be developed for each child with a disability,each student has a different learning style,strengths and weaknesses that must be addressed in the classroom. Accommodations and modifications that could support students ,extended time for completion ofassignments or tests ,Visual demonstrations ,Assistance with organization,change the learningenvironment,notes for lessons learned that day,one step directions from teacher,graphic organizersspecial communication systems .
Compare/Contrast Learning Disabilities (LD) and Emotional/Behavioral Disabilities (EBD) "A learning disability is a neurological disorder that affects the brain’s ability to receive, process,store, and respond to information" (Turnbull, Turnbull, & Wehmeyer,2010).Students who have beendiagnosed with a learning disability will have unique learning abilities and can vary from student tostudent, most often skills that are affected by the student are reading, writing and math. Students who have been diagnosed with Emotional/Behavioral Disability have an inability to learnthat cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors ,they can not build relationships withpeers or faculty,and also have inappropriate types of behavior. Students with emotional or behavioraldisabilities have both learning problems and behavioral problems as students with learning disabilitiesmay have an inability to learn.
Compare/Contrast LD and Intellectual Disabilities (ID) People who have a learning disability is a neurological disorder that affects the brainscommunication to receive, process,and respond to information,students with this disorder may have toretrain their brain to learn new ways of storing information,such as index cards ,graphicorganizers,notes. This will help the students with learning disabilities to retrieve the information theyneed to remind them to stay on tasks. People who have an intellectual disability may have mild tosevere limitations in intellectual functioning such as reasoning, learning, problem solving
Compare/Contrast EBD and ID EBD commonly is diagnosed when the student exhibits emotional, behavioral, and socialbehavioral psychopathology that impairs the student’s ability to participate and benefit from the regulareducation program. EBD may or may not be a lifelong problem though some students who have aseverity of EBD may not be able to handle a regular classroom setting, requiring instead a specializedclassroom. ID students have problems with mental functioning communication skills, taking care of him orherself, and daily life skills,Students with ID will special education and related services.ID students Lack ability to understand the cause and effect relationship between a behavior and anegative outcome.
Inclusion tips for each of the disability areas above (LD, EBD, ID)Provide written or picture schedules so students will adjust to transitions. Build collaboration timebetween special education and regular education personnel into the IEP. Write directions on theboard,use one step at a time verbal directions,Provide accommodations and supports for students.Use graphic organizers,.You may need to use tape recorders for students who need to hear the lessonfor the day. "Teachers may need to make adaptations to the curriculum and learning activities in orderto fully include all students,use differentiate instruction and include learning objectives, adaptingmaterials and resources, varying teaching strategies, and using technology "(Kate MacLean,(2001)) .
References: Crain Danielle,Thirty five years of Educating Students with Disabilitieshttps://www.osep-meeting.org/2011conf/presentations/Breakouts/Tue_PM-35yrEdChildwDisabilities/markowitz.htmDevelopmental Disabilities Increasing in US (2011)http://www.cdc.gov/ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education. (1992). Legal foundations 1: Section 504 ofthe Rehabilitation Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act. Reston, VAHenderson,Kelly ,(2010) Overview of ADA, IDEA, and Section 504Least Restrictive Environment [LRE] Law & Legal Definitionhttp://definitions.uslegal.com/l/least-restrictive-environment-lre/MacLean, Kate ,(2001). Inclusive Teaching GuideOverview of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act OF 1997(http://www.wrightslaw.com/bks/lawbk/ch4.idea.overview.pdf)Overview of ADA, IDEA, and Section 504 Contents of the IEP (2010)http://nichcy.org/schoolage/iep/iepcontentsTurnbull, Turnbull, & Wehmeyer, (2010), Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Today’s Schools, 6thedition, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey