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  • 1. THE GOALA PROCESS OF ONGOING IMPROVEMENT
    Company Name
    // YIS // 062009//
  • 2. Why can't we consistently get a quality product out the door on time at the cost that can beat the competition?
    WHAT IS
    YOUR PROBLEM ??
    What can we possibly do to be more competitive?
    ~ YIS//062009 ~
  • 3. BIZ UNIT WORRIES
    WHAT IS OUR GOAL ??
    ~ YIS//062009 ~
  • 7. ROBOTS??
    "Have they really increased productivity at your plant?“
    Was your plant able to ship even one more product per day as a result of what happened in the department where you installed the robots?
    "Did you fire anybody?"
    Did you lay anybody off because we installed the robots?“
    “Did your inventories go down?”
    “If your inventories haven't gone down . . . and your employee expense was not reduced . . . and if your company isn't selling more products—which obviously it can't, if you're not shipping more of them—then you can't tell me these robots increased your plant's productivity."
  • 8. You cannot understand the meaning of productivity unless you know what the goal is. Until then, you're just playing a lot of games with numbers and words."
    PRODUCTIVITY ??
    "Your problem is you don't know what the goal is. And, by the way, there is only one goal, no matter what the company."
    Productivityis the act of bringing a company closer to its goal.
    Every action that brings a company closer to its goal is productive.
    Every action that does not bring a company closer to its goal is not productive.
    ~ YIS//062009 ~
  • 9. So what is the goal?
    What are we supposed to be doing here?
    What keeps this place working?
    IS THIS YOUR GOAL ?
    • cost-effective purchasing,
    • 10. employing good people,
    • 11. high technology,
    • 12. producing products,
    • 13. producing quality products,
    • 14. selling quality products,
    • 15. capturing market share.
    • 16. communications
    • 17. customer satisfaction
    The goal of a manufacturing organization is to MAKE MONEY
    ~ YIS//062009 ~
  • 18. FINANCIAL MEASUREMENT
    NET PROFIT
    Money you’ve made
    It's a measure of survival:
    Stay above the line and you're OKAY;
    Go below and you're DEAD.
    RETURN ON INVESTMENT (ROI)
    the money made VS the money invested
    CASHFLOW
    Money coming in VS money coming out
    ~ YIS//062009 ~
  • 19. OPERATIONAL MEASUREMENT
    Remember ….
    We are always talking about the organization as a whole—not about the manufacturing department, or about one plant, or about one department within the plant.
    We are not concerned with local optimums.
    Throughput
    the rate at which the system generates
    money through sales
    Inventory
    all the money that the system has invested in
    purchasing things which it intends to sell
    Operational expense
    all the money the system spends in order to
    turn inventory into throughput
    ~ YIS//062009 ~
  • 20. PHENOMENA IN PRODUCTION
    An event, or a series of events, must take place before another can begin . . . the subsequent event depends upon the ones prior to it
    Dependent events
    Statistical fluctuations
    Kind of information that we cannot precisely predict. These types of information vary from one instance to the next.
  • 21. DEPENDENT EVENT
    &
    STATISTICAL FLUCTUATION
    Is the customer have their preference in the menu ?
    Is the food still available ?
    How long it takes to serve the food order?
    How many guest should be served?
    How long the chef need to cook?
    Is all the material need avail ?
    ~ YIS//062009 ~
  • 22. We’ve got limits on how fast we can..
    However, there is no limit on my ability to slow down.
    Or on anyone else's ability to slow down. Or stop.
    And if any of us did, the line would extend indefinitely.
    HERBIE
    What's happening is not an averaging out of the fluctuationsin our various speeds,
    but an accumulation of the fluctuations.
    And mostly it's an accumulation of slowness—because dependency limits the opportunities for higher fluctuations. And that's why the line is spreading..
  • 23. ~ YIS//062009 ~
    DRUM BUFFER ROPE
    We can make the line shrink only by having everyone in the back of the line move much faster than Ron's average over some distance
  • 24. LET’S PLAY THE GAME !!
    "The idea is to move as many matches as you can from your bowl to the bowl on your right.
    When it's your turn, you roll the die, and the number that comes up is the number of matches you can move.
    But you can only move as many matches as you've got in your bowl.
    So if you roll a five and you only have two matches in your bowl, then you can only move two matches.
    And if it comes to your turn and you don't have any matches, then naturally you can't move any.”
    INVENTORY
    CAPACITY
    ~ YIS//061409 ~
  • 25. MANAGE YOUR RESOURCES!!
    Balance the flow,
    not capacity !!
    You should not balance capacity with demand.
    What you need to do instead is balance the flow of product through the plant with demand from the market
  • 26. INCREASE YOUR THROUGHPUT
    By
    FOCUSING ON YOUR BOTTLENECK
    MAKE SURE THE
    BOTTLENECKS TIME
    NOT WASTED
    • Don’t let it sitting idle
    • 27. Don’t process part which are already defective or will become defective through a careless worker / poor process control
    • 28. Don’t make it work on parts you
    don’t need
    GAIN MORE CAPACITY
    • Shift the parts that don’t have to be processed by the bottleneck to next non-bottleneck process
    • 29. Use other machine that can do the same process
    • 30. Ask vendor support
    ~ YIS//062009 ~
  • 31. Capacity of the plant
    =
    the capacity of its bottlenecks
    PUT QC IN FRONT OF THE BOTTLE NECKS
    Make sure the bottleneck works only on good parts by weeding out the ones that are defective.
    If you scrap a part before it reaches the bottleneck, all you have lost is a scrapped part. But if you scrap the part after it's passed the bottleneck, you have lost time that cannot be recovered.
    Be sure the process controls on bottleneck parts are very good, so these parts don't become defective in later processing.
    If your bottlenecks are not maintaining a flow sufficient to meet demand and make money, there is only one thing to do.
    FIND MORE CAPACITY
    To increase the capacity of the plant is to increase the capacity of only the bottlenecks.
    Whatever the bottlenecks produce in an hour is the equivalent of what the plant produces in an hour.
    So ... an hour lost at a bottleneck is an hour lost for the entire system.
  • 32. Balance capacity with demand first, then try to maintain the flow.
     The rule we should be following is to balance the flow with demand, not the capacity
    Bottlenecks govern
    both throughput and inventory
    The incentives we usually offer are based on the assumption that the level of utilization of any worker is determined by his own potential,
    "That's totally false because of dependency. For any resource that is not a bottleneck, the level of activity from which the system is able to profit is not determined by its individual potential but by some other constraint within the system."
    When people give the performance calculation…
    The numbers were almost always right.
    However, the assumptions almost always wrong
    ~ YIS//062009 ~
  • 33. Assumptions :
    Available hours : 600 hr/month
    X – bottleneck : 600 hr/month
    Y – nonbottleneck : 450 hrs/month
    1
    Y
    Y
    If Y keep producing after 450 hours to catch 100% efficiencies,
    there would be excess inventory in Y
    If Y only fed by X, the efficiency only 75%
    Then Y will be starving
    2
  • 34. X
    X
    FG
    3
    FG
    Y
    Y
    Constraints no longer in production but in market demand
    If x = 100% and y= 100%
    There will be pile inventory in assembly line from Y waiting for X
    4
    MARKET ?
    FG
  • 35. THROUGHPUT  INVENTORY TURNOVER
    WHAT DETERMINES YOUR LEAD TIME??
    WASTE
    ~ YIS//062009 ~
  • 36. Cut batch size instead of using
    Economical Batch Quantity (EBQ) ??
    ++ overall efficiencies stays solid
    ++ work force more occupied than before
    ++ the parts moved to the next process center faster
    ++ less idle time overall
    ++ work flow is more smoothly than ever
    More set-ups, the cost of making parts goes up??
    The measurement assumes that all of the workers in the plant are always going to be fully occupied, and therefore, in order to do more set-ups, you have to hire more people.
    That isn't true, in fact it hasn't really done anything to our actual expenses.
    We haven't added any additional cost by doing more set-ups since we haven't added more people to the payroll – just optimizing the time of people to set-up.
    In fact, the cost of parts has gone down since we began the smaller batch sizes.”
    Economic Batch Quantity
    Q = [2cdr/h(r – d)]½,
    Q : quantity to be purchased or manufactured,
    c : cost of processing an order for delivery,
    d : demand in the period for that stock item,
    h : cost of holding a unit of stock,
    r : the rate of production.
  • 37. ATTACK YOUR
    CONSTRAINTS !!
    WARNING!!!!
    If in the previous steps a constraint has been broken, go back to step 1,
    but do not allow INERTIA to cause a system's constraint.
    IDENTIFY
    the system's constraint(s).
    1
    2
    Decide how to EXPLOIT
    the system's constraint(s).
    3
    4
    SUBORDINATE everything else to the above decision
    ELEVATE
    the system's constraint(s).
    ~ YIS//062009 ~
  • 38. Most people are reacting rather than planning.
    USE YOUR
    LOGICAL THINKING
    TO ACHIEVE
    THE GOAL
    What are we asking for is the ability to answer three simple questions:
    1. What to change?
    2. What to change to?
    3. How to cause the change?
  • 39. SUMMARY
    ~ YIS//062009 ~