Copyright  ©  The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 1 The Human Organis...
Characteristics of Living Things <ul><li>Organization </li></ul>
Characteristics of Living Things <ul><li>Responsiveness </li></ul>
Characteristics of Living Things <ul><li>Growth and Differentiation </li></ul>
Characteristics of Living Things <ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul>
Characteristics of Living Things <ul><li>Movement </li></ul>
Characteristics of Living Things <ul><li>Metabolism and Excretion </li></ul>
Definitions <ul><li>Anatomy – Study of structure </li></ul><ul><li>Physiology – Study of function </li></ul>
Anatomy and Physiology <ul><li>Anatomy is the study of the structures of the body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systemic anatomy i...
Studies in Anatomy <ul><li>Microscopic Anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Cytology – study of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Histology – s...
Studies in Anatomy <ul><li>Gross Anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Regional anatomy - the study of the body by areas </li></ul><ul...
Studies in Anatomy <ul><li>Gross Anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Embryology – study of structural development from fertilization...
Studies in Physiology <ul><li>Cell physiology – study of the function of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Special physiology – stud...
Structural and Functional Organization <ul><li>Six Levels of Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical Level </li></ul><...
Structural and Functional Organization <ul><li>Chemical Level  Atoms (colored balls) combine to form molecules </li></ul><...
Structural and Functional Organization <ul><li>Chemical Level  Atoms (colored balls) combine to form molecules </li></ul><...
Structural and Functional Organization <ul><li>Chemical Level  Atoms (colored balls) combine to form molecules </li></ul><...
Structural and Functional Organization <ul><li>Organ Level  Different tissues combine to form organs, such as the urinary ...
Structural and Functional Organization <ul><li>Organ Level  Different tissues combine to form organs, such as the urinary ...
Structural and Functional Organization <ul><li>Organ Level  Different tissues combine to form organs, such as the urinary ...
Fig. 1.3a Organ systems of the human body and their associated organs
Fig. 1.3b Organ systems of the human body and their associated organs
Homeostasis <ul><li>Existence and maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>set poin...
Homeostatic regulation <ul><li>Autoregulation – a cell, tissue or organ automatically adjusts to a change in the environme...
Homeostatic regulation <ul><li>Extrinsic regulation: When the nervous or endocrine system controls or adjusts the activity...
Homeostatic regulatory mechanism <ul><li>Stimulus – a change in an enviromental factor </li></ul><ul><li>Receptor (sensor)...
Homeostatic regulatory mechanism <ul><li>Effector – usually a muscle or a gland.  Proves the response to the stimulus.  </...
Homeostasis <ul><li>Homeostasis is maintained by negative and positive feedback mechanisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative ...
 
Homeostatic imbalance <ul><li>A homeostatic imbalance is a disease </li></ul><ul><li>Signs – characteristics of a disease ...
 
Terminology and Body Plane <ul><li>Body Positions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anatomical position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li...
Terminology and Body Plane <ul><li>Directional terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Always refer to anatomical position </li></ul><...
Fig. 1.11 Body Parts and Regions
Fig. 1.12 Body Parts and Regions
Body Planes <ul><li>Sagittal plane:  divides the body into left and right parts </li></ul><ul><li>Transverse plane:  divid...
Organ Planes <ul><li>Longitudinal section:  along its long axis </li></ul><ul><li>Cross (transverse) section:  right angle...
Body Cavities <ul><li>Thoracic cavity:  bounded by the ribs and the diaphragm </li></ul><ul><li>Abdominopelvic cavity:  Co...
Serous Membranes <ul><li>Parietal membrane:  lines the wall of the cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Visceral membrane:  is in cont...
Serous Membranes <ul><li>Pericardial cavity:  has the pericardium that surrounds the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Pleural cavit...
Serous Membranes <ul><li>Peritoneal cavity:  has the peritoneum that surrounds certain abdominal and pelvic organs </li></...
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Seeley chapter 1

  1. 1. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 1 The Human Organism Cells of the Peritoneum
  2. 2. Characteristics of Living Things <ul><li>Organization </li></ul>
  3. 3. Characteristics of Living Things <ul><li>Responsiveness </li></ul>
  4. 4. Characteristics of Living Things <ul><li>Growth and Differentiation </li></ul>
  5. 5. Characteristics of Living Things <ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul>
  6. 6. Characteristics of Living Things <ul><li>Movement </li></ul>
  7. 7. Characteristics of Living Things <ul><li>Metabolism and Excretion </li></ul>
  8. 8. Definitions <ul><li>Anatomy – Study of structure </li></ul><ul><li>Physiology – Study of function </li></ul>
  9. 9. Anatomy and Physiology <ul><li>Anatomy is the study of the structures of the body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systemic anatomy is the study of the body by organ systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional anatomy is the study of the body by areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface anatomy uses superficial structures to locate deeper structures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physiology is the study of the processes and functions of the body </li></ul>
  10. 10. Studies in Anatomy <ul><li>Microscopic Anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Cytology – study of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Histology – study of tissues </li></ul>
  11. 11. Studies in Anatomy <ul><li>Gross Anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Regional anatomy - the study of the body by areas </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic anatomy - the study of the body by organ systems </li></ul><ul><li>Surface anatomy - uses superficial structures to locate deeper structures </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental anatomy – study of structure throughout the lifespan </li></ul>
  12. 12. Studies in Anatomy <ul><li>Gross Anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Embryology – study of structural development from fertilization to birth </li></ul><ul><li>Medical or pathological anatomy – study of anatomical changes caused by disease </li></ul>
  13. 13. Studies in Physiology <ul><li>Cell physiology – study of the function of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Special physiology – study of the function of organs </li></ul><ul><li>System physiology – study of the function of organ systems </li></ul><ul><li>Pathological physiology – study of changes in function caused by disease </li></ul>
  14. 14. Structural and Functional Organization <ul><li>Six Levels of Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical Level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell Level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tissue Level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organ Level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organ System Level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organism Level </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Structural and Functional Organization <ul><li>Chemical Level Atoms (colored balls) combine to form molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Cell Level Molecules form organelles, such as the nucleus and mitochondria, which make up cells </li></ul><ul><li>Tissue Level Similar cells and surrounding materials make up tissues </li></ul>
  16. 16. Structural and Functional Organization <ul><li>Chemical Level Atoms (colored balls) combine to form molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Cell Level Molecules form organelles, such as the nucleus and mitochondria, which make up cells </li></ul><ul><li>Tissue Level Similar cells and surrounding materials make up tissues </li></ul>
  17. 17. Structural and Functional Organization <ul><li>Chemical Level Atoms (colored balls) combine to form molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Cell Level Molecules form organelles, such as the nucleus and mitochondria, which make up cells </li></ul><ul><li>Tissue Level Similar cells and surrounding materials make up tissues </li></ul>
  18. 18. Structural and Functional Organization <ul><li>Organ Level Different tissues combine to form organs, such as the urinary bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Organ System Level Organs such as the urinary bladder and kidneys make up an organ system </li></ul><ul><li>Organism Level Organ systems make up an organism </li></ul>
  19. 19. Structural and Functional Organization <ul><li>Organ Level Different tissues combine to form organs, such as the urinary bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Organ System Level Organs such as the urinary bladder and kidneys make up an organ system </li></ul><ul><li>Organism Level Organ systems make up an organism </li></ul>
  20. 20. Structural and Functional Organization <ul><li>Organ Level Different tissues combine to form organs, such as the urinary bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Organ System Level Organs such as the urinary bladder and kidneys make up an organ system </li></ul><ul><li>Organism Level Organ systems make up an organism </li></ul>
  21. 21. Fig. 1.3a Organ systems of the human body and their associated organs
  22. 22. Fig. 1.3b Organ systems of the human body and their associated organs
  23. 23. Homeostasis <ul><li>Existence and maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>set point is the ideal normal value (body temperature) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>normal range is the fluctuation around set point </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Homeostatic regulation <ul><li>Autoregulation – a cell, tissue or organ automatically adjusts to a change in the environment. Example: inflammation </li></ul>
  25. 25. Homeostatic regulation <ul><li>Extrinsic regulation: When the nervous or endocrine system controls or adjusts the activity of tissues, organs or organ systems in response to a change in the environment. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Homeostatic regulatory mechanism <ul><li>Stimulus – a change in an enviromental factor </li></ul><ul><li>Receptor (sensor) – a sensor that is sensitive to the environmental change </li></ul><ul><li>Control center (integration center) – receives and processes the stimulus. If needed send a message to the effector </li></ul>
  27. 27. Homeostatic regulatory mechanism <ul><li>Effector – usually a muscle or a gland. Proves the response to the stimulus. </li></ul><ul><li>The action of the effector determines if the response will take place through negative feedback or positive feedback. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Homeostasis <ul><li>Homeostasis is maintained by negative and positive feedback mechanisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative feedback turns off or reverses the original stimulus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive feedback enhances and up-regulates the initial stimulus (is usually harmful to the body) </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Homeostatic imbalance <ul><li>A homeostatic imbalance is a disease </li></ul><ul><li>Signs – characteristics of a disease that can be measured </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms – characteristics of a disease that cannot be measured </li></ul>
  30. 32. Terminology and Body Plane <ul><li>Body Positions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anatomical position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>human standing erect with the face directed forward, the arms hanging to the sides, and the palms facing forward </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supine – person laying face up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prone – person laying face down </li></ul></ul>
  31. 33. Terminology and Body Plane <ul><li>Directional terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Always refer to anatomical position </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Right </li></ul><ul><li>Left </li></ul><ul><li>Superior </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior </li></ul><ul><li>Cephalic </li></ul><ul><li>Caudal </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior </li></ul><ul><li>Ventral </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsal </li></ul><ul><li>Proximal </li></ul><ul><li>Distal </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral </li></ul><ul><li>Medial </li></ul><ul><li>Superficial </li></ul><ul><li>Deep </li></ul>
  32. 34. Fig. 1.11 Body Parts and Regions
  33. 35. Fig. 1.12 Body Parts and Regions
  34. 36. Body Planes <ul><li>Sagittal plane: divides the body into left and right parts </li></ul><ul><li>Transverse plane: divides the body into superior and inferior parts </li></ul><ul><li>Frontal (coronal) plane: divides the body into anterior and posterior parts </li></ul>Fig. 1.13
  35. 37. Organ Planes <ul><li>Longitudinal section: along its long axis </li></ul><ul><li>Cross (transverse) section: right angle to the long axis </li></ul><ul><li>Oblique section: across the long axis at an angle other than a right angle </li></ul>Fig. 1.14
  36. 38. Body Cavities <ul><li>Thoracic cavity: bounded by the ribs and the diaphragm </li></ul><ul><li>Abdominopelvic cavity: Contains two subdivisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abdominal cavity: bounded by the diaphragm and the abdominal muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pelvic cavity: surrounded by the pelvic bones </li></ul></ul>Fig. 1.15
  37. 39. Serous Membranes <ul><li>Parietal membrane: lines the wall of the cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Visceral membrane: is in contact with the internal organs </li></ul><ul><li>Serous fluid: secreted by the serous membrane and protects organs against friction </li></ul>
  38. 40. Serous Membranes <ul><li>Pericardial cavity: has the pericardium that surrounds the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Pleural cavities: has the pleura that surround the lungs </li></ul>
  39. 41. Serous Membranes <ul><li>Peritoneal cavity: has the peritoneum that surrounds certain abdominal and pelvic organs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mesenteries hold the abdominal organs in place and provide a passageway for blood vessels and nerves to organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retroperitoneal organs are located “behind” the parietal peritoneum </li></ul></ul>
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