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SLWK 604

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  • 1. OBJECT RELATIONS THEORY Dinah Anderson Kathy Altamirano Kristen Owens Megan Wallace Tierra Williams
  • 2. HISTORY
    • Sigmund Freud -1900s
    • (Solomon 1991)
    • Sigmund Freud 1900s = father of Psychodynamic Perspective
      • Pyschodynamic Perspective: "Concerned with how internal processes such as needs, drives, & emotions motivate human behavior"
    •  
      • Primary focus on the ego
        • Id: sefish and desire driven
        • Ego: developed from the id, responsible for mediating between the id and superego 
  • 3. HISTORY (CONT.)
    • (Solomon 1991)Sigmund Freud 
      • Idea of transference- "re-enactment in the present of a relationship or situation that belongs to the past" 
      • Idea of a lost object that continues to influence an individual
        • Object external to the individual, sole function to fulfill desires and needs
    •   
  • 4. HISTORY (CONT.)
    • Melanie Klein - 1930s
      • Modified Freud's theory studying children
        • Found children used and experienced objects that were desire & need driven, but modifications to reality resulted through these experiences
    • Shift in the role objects play on shaping development
        • Internal objects represent instincts
        • Objects become meaningful after an exeperience in which the individual changes his/her perception
      • New focus on the unconscious fantasies as well as conscious fantasies - emergence of object relations theory
  • 5. HISTORY (CONT.)
    • (Boyle, et al. 2009) Ego psychology also emerged as an adaptation from Freud's original theory
    •  
      • Ego psychology: analysis of both the conscious and unconscious to develop relationships based on past and present experiences
    •  
      • Responsibility of the ego changes
        • Ego promotes healthy social functioning
        • Ego negotiates between internal and external drives
  • 6. HISTORY (CONT.)
    •   (Boyle, et al. 2009) 4 Branches from Freud's Pyscodynamic Perspective emerged within Ego Psychology:
      • Ego Analysts: emphasis on the influence of the ego on an individual's personality
      • Object Relations Theorists: emphasis on early relationships with caregivers and the process of seperation
      • Self-Psychologists: emphasis on how individuals view themselves and their parents, and how this affects their relationship with others
    • (Barker 1999, 324)
      • Neo-Freudians: emphasis on "sociolcultural factors, interpersonal relationships, and psychosocial development into & through adulthood" 
    •  
  • 7. THEORY AT A GLANCE
    • Object Relations Theory contains many of the concepts of Ego Psychology.  Object Relations Theory diverges in that it emphasizes the drive to form and maintain human relationships, rather than the drives to seek pleasure and aggression.
  • 8. SOCIAL INFLUENCES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF OBJECT RELATIONS THEORY
    • -Effects of Early Nurturing
    • -Attachment Theory
  • 9. EFFECTS OF EARLY NURTURING
    • There is research dedicated to understanding the correlation between early childhood experiences and future physical and mental health outcomes.
    • NEGATIVE EXPERIENCES HEALTH PROBLEMS
    examples child abuse family strife poverty emotional neglect examples examples depression drug abuse heart disease
  • 10. EFFECTS OF EARLY NURTURING
  • 11. NURTURING AND ITS EFFECTS ON NEUROLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • 12. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS
    • Attachment
    • introjection
    • Representation
    • object relations
    • Object
    • part object
    • whole object
    • self-object
    • object constancy
  • 13. GOOD VS. BAD OBJECT RELATIONS
    • Infancy
    • Relationship with parents/caregivers
    • Desire for relationships
  • 14. GOOD VS. BAD OBJECT RELATIONS
    • Attachment  attention  independence
    • Object relation  human development (Winnicott & Mahler)
  • 15. GOOD VS. BAD OBJECT RELATIONS
    • Good= healthy relationships
    • Unexpected changes= “intermediate” success
    • Bad= Fears, depression, disorders 
      • Splitting in adulthood
    •   "...much to be learned in this area”
    • (Walsh, 2010, p. 65)
  • 16. IS CHANGE POSSIBLE??
    • YES!!!
    • Recognizing the origin of the issue
      • Childhood History
      • Emotional memories
    • Counseling and treatments 
    • Practitioners, therapists, interventions
  • 17. OBJECTION RELATIONS THEORY & SOCIAL WORK VALUES
    • Person-in-environment
    • Service by clinical social work practitioners
    • Assessments
    • Flexible interventions
  • 18. TECHNIQUES AND INTERVENTION Scenario Mothers attachment to  child (Vickie) caused child to isolate herself from others Characters Individual (Vickie) and Therapist
  • 19. INTERVENTION
    • Need to explore the clients interpersonal history and developmental milestones
  • 20. EMPATHY
    • Through the clients anxiety, resistance, mood changes, and testing of formal limits, the therapist must attempt to keep a productive relationship
    • The practitioner must develop empathy to get through the client’s ups and down
  • 21. EARLY STAGE OF INTERVENTION
  • 22. MID-PHASE
  • 23. END PHASE
    • Client is helped to resolve any major interpersonal conflicts and overcome developmental arrest
    • Using the relationship with the counselor as an example for handling relationships, the client is guided into corrective experiences with people in his or her environment
  • 24. ENDING INTERVENTION
    • If the client had object relation deficits proir to forming a healthy relationship with the practitioner, the practitioner may want to explain the meaning of the “the end” to the client
    • Review the clients emotional reactions
    • Stress the positive gains to the clients
  • 25. TIPS FOR INTERVENTION
  • 26. TECHNIQUES
    • Cognitive-Behavioral techniquest
      • Assertive communication
      • Cognitive Restructuring
    • Group or Family Therapy
  • 27. EMPIRICALLY TESTED?
    • Empirical-
    • 1. derived from or guided by experience or experiment.
    • 2. depending upon experience or observation alone, without using scientific method or theory, especially as in medicine.
    • 3. provable or verifiable by experience or experiment.
  • 28. DOES IT WORK?
    • Object relations theory has been successfully used with clients who face a variety of problems and challenges in meeting their goals.
    • Interventions have been effective with the following
    • Persons of methadone treatment programs.
    • Children in foster care.
    • Survivors of child abuse.
    • Young girls with depression.
    • Juvenile delinquents
    • Women who have been sexually abused.
  • 29. HOW DO WE KNOW IT WORKS?
    • A majority of reports about the effectiveness of object relations interventions are based on client outcomes in case studies, some are based on research designs that include larger number of clients.
  • 30. OBJECT RELATIONS IN ABUSIVE PARTNER RELATIONSHIPS: AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION
    • Hypothesis:
      • Men and women in abusive groups would evidence lower levels of object relations than men and women in non-abusive relationships.
    • Method:
      • Subjects: This sample included 41 men and 40 women entering a psychotherapy program for people in abusive relationships (16 were couples) that reported having either hit or been hit by an intimate partner within the last year.
  • 31. PROCEDURES RESULTS
    • Conflict Tatics Scale (CTS) – an 18 item self- report measure that has been often used in research.
    • Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist (MAACL-R)-Revised- is a 132 item self report measure of trait and state anxiety, depression, and hostility.
    • Million Multiaxial clinical Inventory (MCMI-II) is a 175 item true false inventory developed to access personality disorder and 9 clinical syndrome sales.
    • Results of this study lend empirical support to the hypothesis that men and women in abusive relationships would evidence lower levels of object relations than men and women in non-abusive relationships.
  • 32. REFERENCES
    • Barker, R. (1999). The social work dictionary (4th ed.). Washington, DC: NASW Press.
    •  
    • Boyle, S.W., Hull, G.H., Mather, J.H., Smith, L.L. & Farley, O.W. (2009). Direct practice
    •      in social work (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
    •  
    • Hutchison, E. (2011). Dimensions of human behavior: Person and environment
    •      (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
    •  
    • Klee, T. (2007). Object relations. Dr. Klee’s Eight Stages. Retrieved from:
    •      http://www.objectrelations.org/stages.htm
    •  
    • Solomon, H. (1991).Archetypal psychology and object relations theory: History
    •      and communalities. Journal of Analytical Psychology,  36(3), 307-329.
    •      Retrieved from EBSCOhost.  
    •  
    • Walsh, J. (2010). Theories for direct social work practice (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA:
    •      Brooks/Cole.  
    •