For Moses Pereira-Why Save the Tiger?


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  • After you got all the information on Fioricet, another point on your agenda should be the price for it. resolves this problem. Now you can make the decision to buy.
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  • Impressive presentation to take care about tigers and other animals, all of them are part of our world, so is our responsability to do that.
    Well done work dear Trinity.
    Thanks and kisses from Perú
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  • Hello my dear sweet Trinity,
    On behalf of all Tigers and all other endangered species around the world, I want to thank you so very much for all your hard work and efforts in bringing my plight to the attention of others. Trinity, I personally want to thank you for sharing your show with me. I found it very interesting and informative. Your Show is a very important lesson that we all need to know and learn from. It is also beautiful and very well done. Congratulations!!
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  • Yours it is a very impressive presentation which help to be conscious on the problem you so well develop. Thank you Trinity.
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  • Wanderful presentation.I like it.Thanks.
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For Moses Pereira-Why Save the Tiger?

  1. 1. 1<br />What is an Endangered species? Endangered means danger of the species becoming extinct or dying out.Tigers are facing major population losses & extinction. Tigers are killed for sport, skins & body parts. The 1950s saw extinction of the Caspian tiger. The Bali and Java tiger are also extinct. The last Bali tiger was killed in 1937; the last Javan tiger was seen in 1972. India today has the largest number of tigers, with between 3,600 to 4,000. The South China tiger (20-30 are remaining), is nearly extinct in the wild. <br />The only known photograph of a Bali tiger-extinct 1937<br />The only known photograph of a Bali tiger<br />A Javan Tiger 1938- extinct1972<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />Reasons for the Endangered StatusThe Bengal tiger is endangered because it is poached for its body parts to cater to an illegal market. Another reason is habitat loss due to depletion of forest cover interference of humans and encroachment of forest land by people causing fragmentation. At the turn of the century, there were almost reportedly 40,000 tigers in India, but now only around 4,000 remain in the wild.<br />
  3. 3. 3<br />Why Save Tigers?Tiger is symbol of wilderness and well-being of the ecosystem. By conserving and saving tigers the entire wilderness ecosystem is conserved. In nature, barring human beings and their domesticates, rest of the ecosystem is wild. Hence conserving wilderness is important and crucial to maintain the life support system. So saving tiger amounts to saving the ecosystem which is crucial for man&apos;s own survival. <br />&quot;Do not cut down the forest with its tigers and do not banish the tigers from the forest.The tiger perishes without the forest, and the forest perishes without its tigers.Therefore the tiger should stand guard over the forest and the forest should protect all its tigers&quot;. Mahabharata, Udyogaparvan.29,47-48 Composed circa 400 BC<br />Kailash Sankhala ,Tiger man of India;<br />Founder of Project Tiger, 1973<br />
  4. 4. Sumatran tigers are one of the famous categories of wild tigers. Their name is derived from where they’re found most: the island of Sumatra which is part of The Republic Of Indonesia.<br />The bad news is that Sumatran tigers are endangered specie, with the total population not exceeding five hundred. This is why the Indonesian government has taken steps to preserve them within national parks (out of fear of them being hunted), and tries to breed them in captivity.Another major reason behind the very small Sumatran tiger population is that their natural habitat is being destroyed, by mining activities, urbanization, etc…<br />4<br />
  5. 5. Sumatran tigers are known for their relatively small size compared to other tiger subspecies. Male Sumatran tigers are between 200 to 250 cm in length and weight between 120 and 150 kilograms. Female Sumatran tigers are between 180 to 210 cm in length generally with a weight ranging between 80 and 110 kilograms.Their small size has helped them become fast runners and as such, they have less of a problem hunting for prey. <br />5<br />
  6. 6. Their bone structure, especially around the legs and toes, makes them also quiet good at swimming.<br />When it comes to breeding, Sumatran tigers follow the general tiger breeding criteria: they can mate usually at anytime during the year but may sometime be more active during the spring. The female Sumatran tiger goes into a three and a half month gestation period before giving birth.<br />6<br />
  7. 7. Like cats, the small cubs are born with their eyes closed and it takes them around two weeks to open them. They follow a milk only diet during the first couple of month of them being born, and they stay close to their mother who takes real good care of them and protects them from dangers. They may start developing hunting skills (with the help of their mother at first) starting the fifth to sixth month. It might take them a full year before they become well skilled.<br />When it comes to food, Sumatran tigers are seen to prefer night time prey hunting, when they can use their good senses and the cover of the night in order for them to surprise the prey. They prefer hunting for bears and deers, but they have no problem eating any kind of meat whenever they are hungry.<br />7<br />
  8. 8. Despite all the efforts to preserve the Sumatran tigers, it is believed that around 60 to 70 tigers were shot dead during the late years of the 90’s. Such a number may look small to the reader, but in fact represents close to fifteen percent of the total Sumatran tiger population.<br />8<br />
  9. 9. Bengal Tigers form the largest subspecies of tigers in the world. Most commonly found in India and Bangladesh, they are the ‘national animal’ of both these countries. Living in grasslands and in rainforests, they can weight up to 220kg. The Bengal Tiger population is very fragile today: they have nearly been driven to extinction and numerous projects are now in place to preserve the population.<br />Bengal Tigers<br />The diet of Bengal Tigers consists mainly of medium to large-sized animals. Able to consume around 30kg in one sitting, their favourite prey include wild boars, buffalos, deer and wild pigs. They usually hunt at night, where a tiger can blend in effectively with the surroundings before surprising their victims. They can also hunt during the day if necessary, and the striped pattern on the tiger’s fur helps it to camouflage. Although they do not typically hunt humans, they may do so in cases of extreme hunger.<br />9<br />
  10. 10. Today, the populations of Bengal Tigers stand at around 4,500. In the 1970s, the numbers were much smaller, but projects have helped the population to re-grow. Today, deforestation and urbanization have a major impact on the Bengal Tiger population. Tigers are forced to move out from their natural habitats and as a result can no longer easily hunt food.<br />10<br />
  11. 11. Bengal Tigers are sometimes hunted for their fur or their body parts, which can be used in traditionalChinesemedicine. Although there are strict rules against hunting tigers, many animal preservation agencies say that tigers are still being hunted throughout India and Bangladesh, even inside national parks themselves.<br />11<br />
  12. 12. Several projects have been set-up by government agencies to help conserve the Bengal Tiger population, the largest one being ‘Project Tiger’. <br />12<br />
  13. 13. While they no doubt have played a major part in the fairly successful conservation project, they are also subject to criticism by several activists, who claim that the projects have not been efficiently organized and that tiger numbers may have been inflated by the agencies in order to protect jobs. <br />13<br />
  14. 14. One particularly controversial incident was the complete loss of the Bengal Tiger population in the ‘Sariska Tiger Reserve’ as a result of hunting.<br />14<br />
  15. 15. The Bengal Tiger plays a major role in the heritage of India and Bangladesh. Sadly, these beautiful animals have been driven to near extinction as a consequence of urbanization and hunting. It is important that the public is made aware of the efforts that are taking place in order to save these amazing and important animals. It is only then that they have a chance to survive.<br />15<br />
  16. 16. Siberian tigers are one of the most critically endangered tiger species in the world. They can mainly be found in the east-most regions of the Siberia region of Russia, which explains their name origins.<br />16<br />
  17. 17. These lovely tigers were larger in number only a few decades ago, and were sometimes called north China tigers as they could also be found in north China, in addition to Mongolia and Korea. Then they started getting fewer to the extent where one could no longer find them in south Korea, and their population has become very rare in China (a couple dozen) and Mongolia.<br />17<br />
  18. 18. They kept decreasing in size until reaching only a fewer dozens (less than 50) in the mid 20th century. It was then that efforts were taken in order to save them from extinction. They are now heavily protected and mostly kept in zoos where a close eye can kept on them. Luckily, over five hundred Siberian tigers can be accounted for nowadays, but still, this is considered a very low number (close to the Sumatran tiger population).<br />18<br />
  19. 19. Siberian tigers are one of the largest tigers around. The males are around 200 to 240 cm in length and weight in excess of 310 kilograms. Females are a smaller in size with length up to around 180cm and a weight averaging around 140 kilograms.<br />19<br />
  20. 20. Siberian tigers have a key difference in the way their fur looks: the stripes are not pure black, rather there are moderate to dark brown. Other parts of the fur are also relatively lighter in colour than that of other tiger subspecies.Also, the feet of the Siberian tigers is quiet bigger than others, and this is what helps them adapt to the cold regions they are found in (mentioned above), and as such run and hunt in the snow without difficulty.<br />20<br />
  21. 21. They are natural born hunters, and they are the most fearless of tiger subspecies. They like to use their skills in the wild and as such feeding them dead meat may be of bad influence on their well being.They like bears (any kind, not just the small in size), deer and what not. They may also rely on smaller animals in case they can’t find their favourite. As such, it is not surprising to see them hunting for rabbits!<br />21<br />
  22. 22. Siberian tigers can breed at anytime during the year. The female tiger starts urinating and using her claws to mark trees in order to give the male tiger a signal stating she is ready to mate. Whenever the male Siberian tiger finds such traces, he follows them and goes into solitude with the female for around a week. Gestation period is like the other tiger subspecies’ average, which is around three and a half months.<br />22<br />
  23. 23. Indo-Chinese / South China tigers<br />South China tigers are a subspecies of tigers that can be found mainly in a very narrow area of south / south east China, mainly in forests.<br />South China tigers are not only one of the very endangered tiger species, but it is also considered to be THE species that is most likely to become extinct within a very short period if no real breeding and preservation efforts take place.<br />23<br />
  24. 24. Experts estimate that the south China tiger population does not exceed two to three dozens only! This has earned it a ranking between the world’s top 10 animals that are on the verge of extinction � pretty sad.<br />What has mainly contributed to the reduction of the South Chinese tiger population is the amount of illegal hunting that has taken place in these southern forests, in addition to the reduction in the number of prey it can hunt (again, mostly due to humans).<br />24<br />
  25. 25. These very tigers are now taking refuge in mountains within the area rather than open forests.We have to also keep in mind that starting in the 1960s, tigers were proclaimed a danger to humans in China, and as such hunting them became common. This decision was reversed too late, almost two decades later. The South China tiger population had by then been reduced by more than 95%.<br />25<br />
  26. 26. South China tigers (sometimes referred to as south Chinese tigers) are small in size, with the male ranging between 220 to 260 cm in length and around 140-170 kilograms in weight. Females are smaller in size (this is normal when it comes to tigers and similar mammals) with a length varying usually between 200 to 250 cm and a weight of around 120 kilograms. Their fur differs a bit from that of other subspecies, given that the stripes are somewhat thinner and more spaced along the body.<br />26<br />
  27. 27. South China tigers are known for their patience in hunting. They spend several hours a day looking for prey. They also don’t mind attacking animals that are of equivalent weight if not more. But when it comes to hunger, they would settle down for anything, even small animals and insects.<br />27<br />
  28. 28. If their prey is big, they try to suffocate it after capture, else they would simply use their teeth. They have no problem in attacking humans, and have done so many times in the past. So caution is required if one got to (ever) meet one in the wild.<br />28<br />
  29. 29. The Indochinese tiger (Panthera Tigris corbetti), also called Corbett’s tiger, is found in Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam. Estimates of its population vary between 1,200 to 1,800, but it seems likely that the number is in the lower part of the range. The largest current population is in Malaysia, where illegal poaching is strictly controlled, but all existing populations are at extreme risk from habitat fragmentation and inbreeding. In Vietnam, almost three-quarters of the tigers killed provide stock for Chinese pharmacies. Also, the tigers are seen by poor natives as a resource through which they can ease poverty.<br />29<br />
  30. 30. All White tigers are actually just Bengal tigers which have inherited 2 copies of a recessive gene controlling skinpigmentation. Unlike albino tigers which are 100% white with no stripes, white tigers still carry their black stripes, making them almost identical to an orange Bengal tiger except for their unusual colour.<br />White / Albino Tigers<br />30<br />
  31. 31. Look & Appearance<br />In terms of looks, white tigers have a distinctly pink nose, blue eyes and of course a white or creamy colored fur. These beautiful tigers are often much larger than their orange brothers and sisters, growing up to 3 meters in length and weighing up to 200-230 Kilograms in weight. These size differences exist both as babies and into maturity which usually occurs by 2-3 years of age.<br />31<br />
  32. 32. Unethical Breeding<br />Due to their larger size and the unique white colour zoos, circuses and private owners have turned the breeding and rearing of white tigers into big business. In the wild white tigers are extremely rare due to the scarcity and low probability of a tiger inheriting both recessive genes (chances are 1 in 10,000) but in captivity breeders are taking white tigers and breeding them with each other. Father with daughter, brother with sister etc.<br />32<br />
  33. 33. The fact that these establishments are involved in such inbreeding is not only disturbing but it causes many defects and problems in these new born cubs. As with most breeding genetic variation is essential and limiting the gene pool just to create a white tiger causes long term problems such as distorted spines, mental deficiency, crossed eyes, as well as an overall low tolerance to illness and disease.<br />33<br />
  34. 34. Why do they keep inbreeding ?<br />The answer of course is related to money. White tigers are a part of the ever expanding exotic animals trade which has grown to become a multi million dollar business and is second only to the illegal drug trade business.<br />Zoo’s, circuses and private owners openly admit that the white tiger serves as a great attraction for visitors increasing visitors and of course revenues. A white tiger can sell for as much as $100,000 so if you already own a couple why not breed them create some cubs and sell them off for some extra profit.<br />34<br />
  35. 35. It’s unfortunate but this is exactly what happens and due to the extreme problems and abnormalities that occur when inbreeding occurs many of the new born cubs either die extremely young or come out so deformed that they are either killed or given away to freak shows where they live an extremely poor standard of living.<br />35<br />
  36. 36. Remember it’s not as if white tigers must be bred with each other, they’re not a separate sub-species of tiger, rather they’re 100% identical to the orange Bengal tiger except for their unusual colour. This means they can happily coexist and mate with a normal orange Bengaltiger to produce healthy offspring.<br />36<br />
  37. 37. Establishments and individuals who claim their trying to save or keep the species alive are simply manipulating the truth to keep their unethical activities alive. Breeding of white tigers is nothing short of evil and benefits the tiger species in no way what so ever.<br />37<br />
  38. 38. The white tiger:<br />For many years the scientific community differed in their opinions on white tigers.<br />Were they a separate subspecies?<br />Were they complete or partial albinos?<br />Perhaps they were simply a mutant gene?<br />38<br />
  39. 39. Those issues have now been clarified and it is known that white tigers are not albinos, and nor are they a separate subspecies, but are the result of a recessive gene. They lack much of their normal colour so can be considered albinistic, but the presence of pigmentation causing the stripes and colour in the lips, paw pads and nose, means they are not albinos.<br />39<br />
  40. 40. Pigment can clearly be seen on the close-up of the white tiger shown here. Like all of the tigers pictured in this section there was almost no striping across the body, it was restricted to a tiny amount on the forehead and a couple of rings on the end of the tail.<br />There are no known photographs of albino tigers. <br />40<br />
  41. 41. An explanation of albinism:<br />Albino people or animals are deficient in melanin, one of the pigments which gives colour. The person or animal lacks the usual pigmentation, with the result being the skin and hair are abnormally white or milky. As a consequence these individuals and animals sunburn very easily.<br />Contrary to popular belief, the iris of the eye is not always pink, but may also be blue. The pupil is a deep red. The eyes are usually highly sensitive to the light; this is due to their lack of pigment. Albinos are prone to fast progressing severe cataracts and albino people need to wear sunglasses even on dull days. Albinos appear in less than 1% of the human population.<br />41<br />
  42. 42. Albinism is very rare. When it occurs in the wild the animals have a very low survival rate. In captivity the rate of survival is good, but you will rarely sight an albino. Such is the rarity of albino animals that they, and their slightly less rare white cousins, are often held to be sacred. This applies to white elephants in Thailand and white cattle in India.  <br />42<br />
  43. 43. Trinity<br />43<br />8/4/2009<br />