How to express dissatisfaction effectively to students using nonverbal means?
Effective communication skills
Forms of Nonverbal Communication Facial Expression Eye Contact Gestures Posture and Body Orientation Proxemics or personal space Paralinguistics Touch (NA) Appearance
Why is it important? Communication is a two-way process
Why is it important? Nonverbal makes you a better communicator Improve relationships with people Improve self esteem Improve ability to deceive people
Why is it important for teachers? become better receivers of students' messages. become a better sender of signals that reinforce learning. Nonverbal communication increases the degree of the perceived psychological closeness between teacher and student.
Facial Expression Simple smile or frown can tell a lot of stories. People are able to judge whether one is happy, sad, surprised, or angry.
Effective use of Facial Expression If you smile regularly you will be perceived as more likable, friendly, warm and approachable. Smiling is often contagious and students will react favorably and learn more Facial Expression http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y1H2kZWjqTA Facial Feedback http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_E0hTktMIyE
Eye Contact Helps to regulate the flow of communication. Can establish relationship between the parties. Blinking, staring and looking can indicate whether one is bored, interested or hostile.
Effective use of eye contact Maintain eye contact to open the flow of communication and convey interest, concern, warmth and credibility. Intervals of eye contact lasting 4 to 5 seconds Eye contact http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5FEbfUDzNoI Eye avoidance http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nwbUy3MHZGg
Gestures Nodding of head, hand signals, folding arms, waving, pointing It can alert the receiver of your intentions and emotions
Effective use of gestures Lively and animated teacher captures student’s attention and arouse their interest. Using gestures to reinforce and support your words. Gestures http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ROKYP10Zcw4
Posture and Body Orientation Standing, sitting, lying, slouching It conveys your feelings and attitudes
Effective use of Posture and Body Orientation Avoid speaking with your back turned or looking at the floor or ceiling. This will make you look disinterested. Lean slightly forward. Avoid defensive postures: arm-crossing, and leg-crossing
Proxemics Also known as personal space. Proxemics http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GhhALfB_1Aw
Effective use of Proxemics Move around the classroom to increase interaction with your students. Being closer to students allows teachers to make better eye contact and increases the opportunities for students to speak.
Paralinguistics How you convey your message? Tone Pitch: Low or High Pitch Rhythm: Speed Timbre : Quality Loudness Affect the way people perceive your emotions.
Effective use of Paralinguistics Try to vary the tone and be aware of the underlying message that it conveys. Concentrate on how you phrase and use tones to emphasize ideas. Use soft/ low voice that only the student can hear Paralanguage http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P5j0DFkbnE
Appearance Impression Clothes, Colors, Hairstyle, etc.
Effective use of Appearance Different colors can invoke different moods. Warm colors: vary from warmth to anger & hostility Cool colors: vary from calm to feelings of sadness Appearance can also change physiological reactions, judgment, and interpretations.
How to express dissatisfaction effectively to students using nonverbal means? We can practice and manage our: Eye contact Make sure the student is not avoiding eye contact with you Proxemics Stand closer to the student to alert him/her Gestures Put up your hand to stop him/her Paralinguistics Vary tone, timbre and loudness
Effective Communication Skills Active Listening Verbal Nonverbal Practice or Self Review
Active Listening Relax and listen using verbal and nonverbal Avoid interrupting the speaker It is important as it can help you digest what is being said accurately. It allows you to think through clearly.
Steps for Active Listening Affirmation – Acknowledge ideas, thoughts, feelings Verbal: yes, go on, etc Nonverbal: nodding your head Paraphrasing – Using own words to repeat speaker’s ideas Clarification – check whether you understood Verbal: ask open-ended questions starting with “How”, “What”, “Please explain” Nonverbal: using gestures to enhance questions Summarize and give opinions Verbal: ask if speaker wants to hear your opinions, using “would you..” Nonverbal: using gestures to emphasize ideas
Verbal Be clear and assertive Enhance/emphasize ideas with nonverbal skills (gestures, eye contact, paralinguistics, etc) Use “I” sentences instead of “You” “you” sentences are usually perceived as blaming or attacking the receiver. E.g. “I feel confused.” and “You are making me confused.”
Verbal + Nonverbal We have to manage our emotions (anger) Using “I” statements, do not use words like “better”, “worse”, “should” Acknowledge other’s emotions (through facial expression, eye contact), look interested to help speaker to relax. Rephrase speaker’s words Take note of paralanguage used: tone, timbre and loudness Add others into the conversation to address the issue
Nonverbal We should avoid: Pointing index finger at speaker Wringing of hands Crossing arms on chest Eye avoidance – glancing sideways, looking down
Nonverbal Careful usage of paralanguage Thought through what underlying message that your sentence might have. When angry use a soft/ low voice instead of loud and angry tone.
Practice or Self review Practice and record the speech at home. Take note of paralinguistics used Reflect on these questions: Are everyone being heard? Does everyone has a chance to clarify? Is everyone clear about what you say? Did everyone manage to use the tools of expressing and receiving anger?
Reference list Detlef R Prozesky, MBChBMCommH PhD (2000). Communication and Effective Teaching. Journal of Community Eye Health, 13(35), 44–45. Kendra Cherry (2010). Types of Nonverbal Communication. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/nonverbalcommunication/a/nonverbaltypes.htm Vicki Ritts and James R. Stein. Six Ways To Improve Your Nonverbal Communications. Retrieved from http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/commun-1.htm Tan OonSeng, Richard D. Parsons, Stephanie Lewis Hinson, Deborah Sardo-Brown (2003). Education Psychology: A Practioner-Researcher Approach (An Asian Edition). Singapore: Thomson Learning (a division of Thomson Asia Pte Ltd).
Bizmove.com. Management Skills Resource: Non-Verbal Communication. Retrieved from http://www.bizmove.com/skills/m8g.htm A.N. Okorie (2000). Basic Concepts of Communication in Educational Management. Journal of Teacher Education and Teaching, 4(1), 141-152. University of Maine Cooperative Extension (2008). Group Works: Effective Communication, 2008 (Bulletin No. 6103). Maine: Louise Franck Cyr