Principles of Modernism The expression of the Artist’s right to freedom of choice in subject and style. Departure from literal representation – no longer needed with birth of photography. “Art for Art’s sake” Reject tradition and society.
Art movements as part of Modernism Dadaism (1916 – 1924) Bauhaus (1919 – 1933) Art Deco (1920 – 1935) Surrealism [early] (1920 - 1935)
Tristan Tzara – founder of Dadaism “ Freedom : Dada Dada Dada, a roaring of tense colors, and interlacing of opposites and all contradictions, grotesques, inconsistencies: LIFE” “Dada Manifesto” 
Dadaism Began in neutral Switzerland in WWI Also big in Paris. Reached its peak between 1916 – 1924 “Anti – Art” A movement against rigidity of society and art, and the barbarity of war – the public didn’t deserve art after the war.
Characteristics of Dada Art Nonsensical drawings Pastel and faded colors Used collages and layers – to confuse the “unworthy beholder.” “The beginnings of surrealism” – many Dada artists went on to become members of the Surrealist movement. Subjects sometimes mundane, called art as irony. (e.g.– bicycle wheel, flyer.)
Important Artistsof the Dada Movement Tristan Tzara (1896 – 1953) Francis Picabia (1879 – 1953) Kurt Schwitters (1887 – 1948) Max Ernst (1891 – 1976) Marcel Duchamp (1887 – 1958)
Walter Gropius: Founder of Bauhaus“The School will gradually turninto a workshop… Art and Technology - anew unity.”
Bauhaus Began in 1919 with Bauhaus School in Weimar, Germany. Lead by Walter Gropius, Hannes Meyer, & Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe. Wanted to create new art to reflect the new times they were living in after WWI. Artist should be trained to work in the industry.
Walter GropiusBorn in Berlin in 1883Served as Sgt. Majorin WWI.In 1919 was employedas the new master of theGrand-Ducal SaxonSchool of Arts and Craftsin Weimar – became theBauhaus School.Fled Germany and theNazi Party in 1934.Died in Boston, MA in 1969.
Characteristics of Bauhaus A lack of recognizable objects – wanted to find the true meaning of art through disassembling it. Clean lines, geometric shapes layered. In architecture: clean, functional. Like Dadaism, was a step toward surrealism for artists such as Wassily Kandinsky. Stylistic patterns altered as leaders of the school changed – earlier Bauhaus is different to later Bauhaus.
Important members of the Bauhaus schoolWalter Gropius (1883-1969)Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944)Josef Albers (1888-1976)Herbert Bayer (1900 - 1985)
Art Deco Center: Paris. Gained the title “Art Deco” from Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes in 1925 A new kind of decorative and elegant art. Reached its high point in the mid ’20s – mid 30’s. Reaction to the forced austerity caused by WWI.
Characteristics of Art Deco Geometric shapes Although not the flowing swirls of Art Nouveau, had bolder curves and less “fussy” designs. Bold colors, and new ways of shading pictures. Idealistic images of the “flaming youth” of the “roaring twenties”. Carried a theme through pieces, especially in interiors and architecture.
Exposition Internationale des artsDecoratifs et Industriels Modernes April – November 1925 Held in Paris To show the world that France once again led the way in a new evolving international style – “Art Deco”. Changed the perception of Bauhaus, Colonial Art and, predominantly, the Art Deco style as legitimate movements.
Important Art Deco Artists Tamara de Lempicka (1898 – 1980) “Erte” - Romain De Tirtoff (1892 – 1990) William Van Allen (1883 – 1954) “Cassandre” - Adolphe Mouron (1901 – 1968)
SurrealismInspired by new psychology of two men: Sigmund Freud & Carl Gustav Jung
Basic Principles Freud JungHuman development Neuroses are causedis best understood as by conflicts betweenchanging objects of individualssexual desire subconscious andWishes are repressed greater world.and emerge from the Sexual desire doessubconscious in not play as huge a“accidental” bursts – role.Freudian slips. Must make a healthyNeuroses are caused relationship betweenby repressed the conscious andmemories and unconscious –unconscious shouldn’t be cut offconflicts. from it, but shouldn’tID, Ego and Super be swamped by it.Ego.
Surrealism Divided into two groups based on different interpretations of Freud and Jung – the Automatists and the Veristic Surrealists. Automatists - suppress conscious in order to free the subconscious, inspired by more “Dadaist” ideals, shouldn’t be overly analyzed. Veristic Surrealists - follow the images of the subconscious so they can be interpreted; art is a way to freeze ideas of the subconscious.
SurrealismLead by Andre Brenton, aFrench doctor who hadserved in the trenchesduring WWI.Subject matter was varied: – some pieces show a complete dislocation from any sort of literal “reality” (for example, Max Ernst’s works) -- other pieces show “normal” situations with a spark of absurdity (for example, Rene Magrittes works.)Bright colors among sometimes dullbackgrounds.
Max ErnstHydrometricDemonstrationOf How To KillBy Temperature1920