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Critical Thinking May Faculty Meeting
 

Critical Thinking May Faculty Meeting

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preso given by science teacher on use of Socratic questioning

preso given by science teacher on use of Socratic questioning

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    Critical Thinking May Faculty Meeting Critical Thinking May Faculty Meeting Presentation Transcript

    • Questions have a 3 part answer
      • What would a tax increase on tobacco due? Most students simply state the 1 part outcome: Tobacco use falls.
      • 1) Since there is an increase in tobacco taxes, (restating the question)
      • 2) the cost of using tobacco would rise
      • (the causal change)
      • 3) therefore tobacco use would fall
      • (the outcome)
      • Another example: What would happen to US tourism to Europe if the dollar depreciated (weakened) against the Euro?
      • The lazy one word answer they give is it would fall.
      • The 3 part answer:
      • 1) since the dollar has weakened against the euro,
      • 2) it is now more expensive for American tourists to buy things in Europe
      • 3) so US tourism to Europe will decrease.
    • Critical Thinking Socratic Questioning
      • Critical Thinking workshop hosted by the Foundation for Critical Thinking
        • February 27- March 1, 2009
        • Attended by: Christina Engen, Micki Newland,and Denise Pogroszewski
    • Resources
      • Dr. Linda Elder and Dr. Richard Paul. The Thinker’s Guide to Analytic Thinking. How to take Thinking Apart and What to Look for When You Do . 2007
      • Dr. Linda Elder and Dr. Richard Paul. The Thinker’s Guide to The Art of Socratic Questioning . 2006
      • Richard Paul, A.J.A. Binker, Dougals Martin, and Ken Adamson. Critical Thinking Handbook: High School A Guide for Redesigning Instruction .1995
    • What is critical thinking?
      • The art of analyzing and evaluating thinking with a view to improving it.
      • The result:
        • Raises vital questions and problems, formulating them clearly and precisely
        • Comes to well-reasoned conclusions and solutions, testing them against relevant criteria and standards
    • Critical thinking is
      • Self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective thinking.
      • It requires rigorous standards of excellence and mindful command of their use
      • It entails effective communication and problem solving abilities.
    • Thinking is driven by questions
      • No questions = No understanding
      • It’s not enough for us to be good at asking the questions. The students need to be asking the questions.
      • How do you get students to ask questions?
        • Provide students with the tools!
    • How can we guide critical thinking?
      • The use of Socratic questioning is one tool that we have that we can refine and be intentional about using.
      • It does not have to be used every day.
      • It is a great way to start and wrap-up lessons or units.
    • Socratic Questioning
      • To formulate questions that probe thinking in a disciplined and productive way
    • Socratic Questioning
      • Raises basic issues
      • Probes beneath the surface of things
      • Pursues problematic areas of thought
      • Helps students discover the structure of their own thought
      • Helps students develop sensitivity to clarity, accuracy, relevance, and depth
      • Helps students arrive at judgments through their own reasoning
      • Helps students analyze thinking- its purposes, assumptions, questions, points of view, information, inferences, concepts and implications
    • What kinds of questions?
      • Clarity
        • Could you elaborate further?
        • Could you give me an example?
        • Could you illustrate what you mean?
        • Could you put that another way?
        • What do you mean by…?
        • Why do you say that?
        • *Jane, would you summarize in your own words what Richard has said? Richard is that what you meant?
      • Accuracy
        • How could we check on that?
        • How could we find out if that is true?
        • How could we verify or test that?
      • Precision
        • Could you be more specific?
        • Could you give me more details?
        • Could you be more exact?
      • Logic
        • Does all this make sense together?
        • Does your first paragraph fit together with your last?
        • Does what you say follow from the evidence?
    • Questions lead to discussion
      • Socratic discussion, guided by the teacher, in which students’ thought is elicited and probed, allows students to develop and evaluate their thinking by making it explicit.
      • This gives students an opportunity to develop and test their ideas.
      • Through this process students can synthesize their beliefs into a more coherent and better-developed perspective.
      • Socratic questioning requires teachers to take seriously what their student say and think.
        • What they mean
        • Its significance to them
        • Its relation to other beliefs
        • How it can be tested
        • To what extent and in what way is it true or makes sense
      • Socratic questioning has distinctive goals and ways to achieve them
      • It is structured and disciplined
      • The discussion is structured to take student thought from the unclear to the clear, from the implicit to the explicit
      • To learn how to participate in Socratic questioning, one has to learn how to listen carefully to what others say.
    • Guidelines for Socratic Questioning
      • Think along with the class
      • There are always a variety of ways you can respond
      • Do not hesitate to pause and reflect quietly
      • Keep control of the discussion
    • Guidelines continued
      • Periodically summarize where the discussion is: what questions have been answered; what questions are yet unresolved
      • Think of yourself as a kind of intellectual orchestra leader
      • Keep control of the question on the floor
      • Ultimately we want our students to walk away from here not needing us.
      • We want our students to be self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective thinkers.
    • Practice
      • Read Transcript Four: Helping students think seriously about complex social issues.
      • As you read, think and ask yourself…
        • Does this example clarify what Socratic questioning is?
        • Do I see the goal or purpose?
        • Is the teacher the “intellectual orchestra leader”?
    • In groups of three
      • A- you are the questioner – use the list of questions
      • B- you are the person answer ing the questions
      • C- you are the observer - the good listener
      • Pick a topic- it’s even better if person A doesn’t know that much about the topic
      • Person A- ask a question about your topic
      • B answers
      • Continue this process for a couple of minutes
      • Person C- carefully listens and will report back to A and B about what s/he saw in their conversation related to their use of Socratic questioning.
    • Did You…
      • Listen carefully to what others say?
      • Think about a variety of ways you can respond
      • Hesitate to pause and reflect quietly
      • Keep control of the discussion
      • Periodically summarize where the discussion is: what questions have been answered; what questions are yet unresolved
      • Think of yourself as a kind of intellectual orchestra leader
      • Keep control of the question on the floor