• The study of grammar goes back to the time ofthe ancient Greeks, Romans, and Indians andfrom its earliest days has caught the interest ofthe learned and the wise.GRAMMATICALMYTHOLOGY• The fundamental purpose of the language is tomake sense- to communicate intelligibly.
TABLE• A piece of furniture• An array of figures• A group of people• An occasion of eating• A negotiating session• The table has a broken leg.• There are three columns in the table.• We make up a bridge table each week.• I’ll tell you all at the table• They’ve come to the peace table.• I see a table.• The table is broken.• The paint is on the table.• I’m going to table the motion.
Prescriptivism- the view that one variety of alanguage has an inherently higher value thanothers and ought to be the norm for the whole ofthe speech community.PRESCRIPTIVE GRAMMAR•Prescriptive Rules- state usages considered tobe acceptable•Proscriptive Rules-state usages to be avoided.
1. I should be used in between you and I. Thepronoun should be me after a preposition, as inGive it to me.COMPLAINTS2. Split infinitives should not be used.3. Only should be next to word to which it relates.People should not say I ONLY SAW JANE whenthey mean I SAW ONLY JANE.4. None should never be followed by a plural verb.It should be None was left on the table, not Nonewere left on the table
6. A sentence should not end with a preposition.We should say That was the clerk to whom I gavethe money, and not That was the clerk I gave themoney to.7. People should say I shall/you will/he will whenthey are referring to future time, not I will/youwill/he shall.5. Different(ly) should be followed by from and notby to or than.8. Hopefully should not be used at the beginning ofa sentence as in Hopefully, Mary will win the race.
9. Whom should be used, not who, in suchsentences as That is the man whom you saw. Thepronoun is the object of the verb saw , and shouldbe in the objective case.10. Double negatives should be avoided, as inThey haven’t done nothing.
Morphology- focuses on the structure of words,dealing with such matters and inflectional endingsand the way words can be built up out of smallerunits.THE MAIN BRANCHES OF GRAMMARSyntax- focuses on the structure of sentences
•played an important role in traditional grammarteaching.PARSING•The procedure involved stating the part of speechto which a word belonged, and giving certaindetails about it.
I go would be parsed as follows.EXAMPLE OF PARSINGI Personal pronoun, first person, singular,nominative case, subject of the verb gogo Verb, strong, intransitive, indicative mood,present tense, first person singular, agreeing withits subject I.
The comparison can be to do the same degree, toa higher degree, or to lower degree.ADJECTIVESThe base form of the adjective is called absolute:big, happyTHE INFLECTIONS IDENTIFY TWO STEPS INTHE EXPRESSION OF A HIGHER DEGREE.Adding –er produces the comparative form:bigger, happier.Adding –est produces the superlative form:biggest, happiest.
Using as…..as (for the same degree:X is a big as YTHERE ARE NO INFLECTIONAL WAYS OFEXPRESSING THE SAME ORLOWER DEGREES IN ENGLISHLess or least for lower degrees (X is lessinterested than Y, Z is the least interested of all.
There is also a syntactic (often called aperiphrastic) way of expressing higherdegree, through the use of more (for thecomparative) and most (for thesuperlative):A is more beautiful than B and Cis the most beautiful of all.
The availability of two ways of expressinghigher degrees raises a usage question: whichform should be used with any particular? Theanswer is largely to do with how long theadjective is.Adjectives of one syllable usually take theinflectional form: big, thin, small, long, fat, redThere are exceptions: real, right, wrong andparticiplesThat’s the most burnt piece of toast I’ve everseen.(not * the burntest)
Adjectives of three syllables or more use only theperiphrastic form: we do not say beautifuller orinterestingest.Exceptions: a three syllable adjectives which beginwith un- do allow the inflection, as in the case ofunhealthier and unhappiest.The chief problem arises with two-syllableadjectives, many of which permit both forms ofcomparison:That’s a quieter/more quiet placeA few such as proper and eager, arestraightforward: they do not allow the inflectionat all.
Better and best are comparison forms of good;worse and worst are the comparison forms of bad.IRREGULARSFar has two forms: further/furthest andfarther/farthestOld has regular forms (older/oldest) and also anirregular use (elder/eldest) when talking aboutfamily membersSome adverbs also allow inflectional comparisone.g. soonest, but most adverbs are comparedperiphrastically: more frankly, most willingly.
VARIABLE-expressing a contrast between oneand more than one.Most variable nouns change from singular to pluralin a wholly predictable way, usually by adding –s.NOUNS: NUMBERSBy contrast, there are only a few hundred nounswith an irregular form-though it is these whichattract the interest of the grammarian, as they leaddifficulty in language learning.Ex. mouse, child, footThe regular form: dogs, cats, snakes, eggs
If the noun ends in an /s/-like sound-it is followedby an extra syllable,/Iz/e.g. buses, phrases, dishes, beaches, sledgesADDING AN -SAll other nouns ending in a voiced consonant or avowel-add /z/ as in cubs, rods, bags, rings, pools,cars, players, bees, foes, zoosAll other nouns ending in a voiceless consonantadd /s/, as in cups, pots, sacks, scruffs, growths.
VARIABLE-expressing a contrast between oneand more than one.Most variable nouns change from singular to pluralin a wholly predictable way, usually by adding –s.NOUNS: NUMBERSBy contrast, there are only a few hundred nounswith an irregular form-though it is these whichattract the interest of the grammarian, as they leaddifficulty in language learning.The regular form: dogs, cats, snakes, eggs
The change does not take place when there is aderived sense, as when you louse refers to aperson (You louses) or mouse to a character(we’ved hired three Mickey Mouses this month).EXCEPTIONAL PLURALSman menfoot feetgoose geesewoman womentooth teethlouse liceSeven nouns change their vowel (a process knownas mutation).
Four nouns add sound as well –en, in two caseschanging the vowel sound:A few nouns change their final fricative consonantas well as adding /z/. Some change /f/ to /v/ as inwives, loaves, halves.Ox-oxenChild-childrenBrother=brethrenIn some cases, usage is uncertain: dwarf, hoof,scarf, and wharf will be found with both /-fs/ and /-vz/
NOUNS OF FOREIGN ORIGINBook1.xlsxINVARIABLE NOUNS- do not have a number contrast.Singular-only nouns• Proper names ex. Francis• Names of subjects ex. Physics• Nouns in noncount use ex. music
• Names of two-part items ex. scissors• A few dozen noun ending in –s ex. congratulations• A few nouns which look singularbut are always plural ex. peoplePlural –only NounsDouble Plural Nouns• Several animal names have two plurals. There isthe regular plural, adding an –es, and there is azero plural form, with no ending at all.Ex. I have two rabbits.They’ve been shooting rabbit.
• A few nouns have the same for both singular and plural,even though they are semantically variable, allowing adifference between one and more than one.Ex. I like your sheep.Words Without EndControversial Nouns• Words found to be plural but now used often assingular.Ex. Much of this data needs to be questioned.Many of these data need to be questioned.
Two CasesNOUNS: CASE1. Common Case- noun has no ending at all.2. Genitive Case- formed by adding an –s to thesingular form of the nouns. In writing, this appearswith a preceding apostrophe.The cat’s food.The chief meaning of the Genitive Case isposession.The notion of origin.The traveller’s story.
DescriptionA summer’s day.PeriodThree month’s leave.Doing or Receiving the actionThe hostage’s application.There is a close similarity between a noun in thegenitive case and the same noun preceded by of(of genitive)the ship’s name=the name of the ship
THE ABERRANT APOSTROPHEApostrophes-are used to form possessive,contractions, and a few special plurals.•it was introduced into English language fromFrench in the 16th century and became widespreadduring the 17th;but there was uncertainty about itsuse, even until the middle of the 19th century .• not only did it mark the omission of letters (as incan’t), it was often used before a plural ending,especially when the noun was a loan word endingin a vowel (as in the two comma’s)
FORMING POSSESSIVESAdd an apostrophe and an –s to show thepossessive case of most singular nouns.Ex. the woman’s walletthe dog’s collar•Add an apostrophe to show the possessive caseof plural nouns ending in –s or –es.Ex. the dogs’ barkingthe leaves’ color
Add an apostrophe and an –s to show the possessivecase of plural nouns that do not end in –s or –es.Ex. the women’s booksthe oxen’s grazing landsAdd an apostrophe and an –s (or just anapostrophe if the word is a plural ending in –s) tothe last word of a compound noun to form thepossessive.Name of businesses the Salvation Army’s headquartersand OrganizationsTitles of Rulers Catherine the Great’s victoriesand Leaders
Hyphenated Compound Nouns my sister-in-law’s carUsed to describe peopleTo form possessives involving time, amounts, orthe word sake, use an apostrophe and an –s or justan apostrophe if the possessive is plural.Ex. a month’s vacationone quarter’s worthfor goodness’ sakeTo show joint ownership, make the final noun possessive.To show individual ownership, make each nounpossessive.Joint I always enjoyed Bob and Ray’s radio show.Ind. Liz’s and Meg’s coats are hanging here.
Use an apostrophe and an –s with indefinite pronouns toshow possession.Ex. one another’s friendseveryone’s timeDo not use an apostrophe with the possessiveforms of personal pronouns.Ex. Its tires his jazz recordsher blue sweater their partyUse an apostrophe in a contraction to indicate the positionof the missing letter or letters.Ex. can’t aren’t couldn’t won’t
Use an apostrophe and an –s to write the plurals ofnumbers, symbols, letters and words used to namethemselves.Ex. During the 1860’sm’s and n’sno if’s or maybe
PRONOUNS: CASE=it’s the form of noun or pronoun that indicatesthe use in a sentence.Personal pronouns have a genitive form, as have nouns,but they also have an objective form which nouns don’thave.Ex. He gave it to me.Pronouns used as subject and object.I/me, we/us, he/him, she/her, they/themWho/whom
VERBS=it is a word or group of words that expresses timewhile showing an action, a condition, or the factthat something exists.Regular lexical verb can be predicted by rules.Irregular lexical verb is one where some of the forms areunpredictable.
Regular verbs appear in four forms.• Base form- a form with no endingsEx. go, see, remember, provide• s- form- made by adding an –(es)Ex. looks, chops, jumps, tries, goes, reminds• The –ing form, or –ing participle- added to the baseform of the verbEx. running, jumping, going• The –ed form- made by adding –ed to the base-this ending is found in the past form and the –ed participleform.
Past form- to express the past tenseEx. I kicked the ball.• -ed participle has 4 uses• Express past aspectEx. I’ve kicked the ball.• Express passive voiceEx. The ball was kicked.• Used in certain types of subordinate clause and to begina clause.Ex. Kicked and battered, I hobbled off the field.
• Used as adjectiveEx. The cooked meal.•Irregular Verbs- make their –s form and –ing form byadding an ending to the base• Most irregular verbs change the vowel of the base tomake their past –ed participle forms. The process isVOWEL GRADATION.Ex. meet-met, take-took,
Classes of Irregular VerbsClass 1-Only irregular feature is the ending used infor both their past and –ed participle forms.Ex. have, had, sendClass 2-Past tense is regular, but whose –ed participleform has an-n ending, as well as variant form in –ed.Ex. mow-mown or mowedswell-swollen-swelledClass 3- The same ending for the past and –ed participleforms.Ex. keep-kept, sleep-slept, sell-sold
Class 4-Have an –n ending for the –ed participleform, and an irregular past form, they change thevowel of the base form.Ex. blow-blew-blown take-took-takensee- saw-seenClass 5-Have the same form throughoutEx. cut, let, shut,Class 6-The same form for both past tense and –edparticipleEx. spin-spun, sit-sat, stand-stood
Class 7- The past and –ed participle forms differ.Ex. swim- swam-swum go-went-goneSeveral verbs have alternative –ed forms, one regular(with –ed) the other irregular (with –t)burned-burnt learned-learntsmelled-smelt spilled-spilt-ed-duration of an action is being emphasized-t-something which has happened once, which has takenup little time.The torturer slowly burned my armI burnt my arm against the stove.