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    Concept note english 4   copy Concept note english 4 copy Document Transcript

    • NOTRE DAME OF PIGCAWAYAN, INC. Pigcawayan, Cotabato Subject: English 4 Learning Target: Recognizing Kinds of Reading Activity No. 1 Activity Title: Kinds of Reading Kinds of Reading An efficient reader does not read in the same way all the time. he or she adjusts the kind of reading to the type of material and purpose in reading at hand. the questions under these two main factors will help you determine whether you should read fast, read slowly, or do a rereading of the selection. Reading can be classified in several ways: A. Rapid Reading involves skimming and scanning, the fastest rates at which a person reads. Skimming and scanning are reading by signposts or clues set by the writer: chapter titles, section heading, boldfaced or italicized types, and underlined. Sometimes, the terms are interchanged. We will use the Venn diagram to differentiate the terms. Exercise 1: What kind of reading is required in each situation? Be ready to explain your answers. 1. You are asked to give the main idea of each paragraph in the selection. 2. You want to know when man first landed on the moon. 3. Richard Santos, your friend, has moved to another house.. Find out his new telephone number in the directory. 4. You have been assigned to explain how a camera works. 5. You are the top student in your class. Your parents have promised you a video camera of any brand, as long as you can tell why you want that specific item. 6. Your teacher told you to look for any three books to use as references for your research project. 7. You have an exam on inventions and their inventors. Get that information for your review. 8. John Madrid, the number 1 most wanted man was tracked down at last. Find out why he is called “The Most wanted Man”. Read the newspaper article in Times, November 30 issue. 9. Are you fat? Read the magazine on how to slim down. If you can’t slim down, find out how you can dress to look slim. 10. There are three brands of refrigerator advertised in a magazine. Which of them will you choose? NOTRE DAME OF PIGCAWAYAN, INC. Skimming read for general idea preliminary step to reading more thoroughly overview Scanning read for facts/ specific information Similarities fastest rates read by signposts or clues B. Extensive reading is to read for leisure as well as for entertainment. C. Intensive reading often involves getting detailed information. Intensive Reading Critical Reading Check accuracy of ideas to make judgment, draw conclusions, and make predictions, irrelevant ideas Analytical Reading Have a questioning mind, pay attention to words and their importance to other words; weed out Study Reading Get maximum understanding of main ideas and their relationship
    • Pigcawayan, Cotabato Subject: English 4 Learning Target: Determining One’s Speech IQ; getting to Know Oneself better through MI Chart Activity No. 2 Activity Title: Speech Intelligent Quotient (IQ); Multiple Intelligence Chart (MI) How is your Speech? Reading is oral as well as silent. When you say oral reading, you usually read to one person or to more than one. This means that you have an audience. This is where speech skills come in handy. Check your speech Intelligence Quotient (IQ). Answer the following questions as truthfully as you can. If you cannot judge yourself, ask friend to help you. Place a check under the proper column. Skill Always Often Sometimes Rarely A. When I speak; I 1. pronounce consonants, vowels, and diphthongs correctly 2. produce initial and final sounds clearly 3. project voice adequately 4. use correct stress (syllable/word) 5. follow the correct intonation 6. use the correct phrasing 7. put life into my voice B. To project the correct idea and emotion, 8. vary my pitch and vocal quality 9. vary rate in speaking 10. vary force or volume 11. show expression on my face 12. use appropriate gestures and movements Factors that Affect Study There are several factors that affect learning. Among these are physical and psychological items which can help you get to know yourself better and aid your teacher in preparing activities for you. A. Attitudes and Interests Answer each question as frankly as you can. Write your answers briefly. 1. What can you do especially well? 2. What do you do poorly? What do you like to do the least of all? 3. What is your favorite subject? Why? 4. What is your favorite school-related activity? Why? 5. What would you like to do when you finish high school? B. Multiple Intelligence
    • To understand yourself better, let us borrow ideas from the Multiple Intelligences model. After you have gone over the chart, identify where you belong by checking the item/s. NOTRE DAME OF PIGCAWAYAN, INC. Multiple Intelligences Musical Singing Music appreciation Composing music software Naturalist Ecology Nature Outdoor activities Global themes Connections Real worldLogical Mathematical Numbers Logic Puzzles Scientific method Intrapersonal Private space Journal Independent study Self-awareness Activities Spatial Charts Graphs and Diagrams Printing Drawing Photography Geometry Linguistic Reading Writing Speaking Storytelling Poetry reading/ writing Interpersonal Cooperative groups Simulations Conflict resolutions Clubs Bodily- Kinesthetic Movements Skits and play Hands-on activities Manipulatives
    • Pigcawayan, Cotabato Subject: English 4 Learning Target: Applying the Listening Skill in Various Activities Activity No. 3 Activity Title: Factors That Affect Listening How Well Do You Listen? Listening is an integral part of all language activities. Whatever you do, whether you speak, read, or write, it is somehow related to listening. A. Study the diagram below and see if you can think of situations that pertain to the factors that affect listening. C. Listening is purposeful learning. We listen for a number of reasons. 1. For information This involves cognitive attitudes, such as- a. recalling known word meaning b. deducing meaning from context 1 3 4 6 5 2 2 2 2 2 Factors that Affect Listening Level of Difficulty Auditory Activity Educational level/ background Environment Emotional and social adjustment Attitude toward listening
    • c. understanding word relationship 2. For comprehension This requires linking ideas to gain a comprehensive picture of a subject or to solve a problem. It includes the cognitive abilities of- a. associating ideas and information b. relating past knowledge to new information c. recognizing relationship or sequence, time and space, cause and effect 3. For critical analysis This means the listener must analyze what he hears and makes a judgment about it. This type of listening involves- a. determining relevant and irrelevant information b. separating fact from opinion c. identifying the speaker’s purpose to inform, explain, convince, entertain and express feelings 4. For appreciation The highest form or level of listening, it- a. involves the listener’s personal response to what he or she knows b. makes use of the other abilities mentioned c. varies according to the listener: his or her interests, experiences and situations Activity to be Dictated………………….. NOTRE DAME OF PIGCAWAYAN, INC. Pigcawayan, Cotabato Subject: English 4 Learning Target: Identifying the Types of Nouns Activity No. 4 Activity Title: Types of Nouns Concrete and Abstract Nouns. Nouns are sometimes grouped according to the characteristics of the things they name. A concrete noun names something that you can physically see, touch, taste hear or smell. An abstract noun names something that is nonphysical that you cannot readily perceive through any of your five senses. Concrete Nouns Abstract Nouns garlic career book immortality Singular and Plural Nouns Nouns can indicate number Singular nouns name one person, place or thing. Plural nouns name more than one. Singular Nouns Regular Irregular valley mouse sky ox lash nucleus Plural Nouns valleys mice skies oxen lashes nuclei Compound Nouns A noun that is composed of two or more words acting as a single unit. Three Forms 1. Hyphenated crab grass, player piano, snake dance 2. Separated jack-in-the-box, light-year, sister-in-law 3. Combined dragonfly, eardrum, starfish Common and Proper Nouns. All nouns can be categorized as either common or proper. A common noun names any one of a class of people, places or things. A proper noun names a specific person, place or thing. Common Nouns Proper Nouns playwright Bernard Shaw, Lillian Hellman island Maui, Sicily building World Trade Towers, Taj Mahal
    • Exercise A. Identifying the Types of Nouns. Copy the following list of nouns. Then Identify each according to whether it (1) names a person, place, or thing, (2) is concrete or abstract, (3) is singular or plural, (4) is collective, (5) is compound, and (6) is common or proper. Example: pleasure (1) thing, (2) abstract,(3) singular, (4) not collective (5) not compound (6) common 1. jump suit 2. tomato 3. giraffes 4. San Francisco 5. monkey wrenches 6. Lord Peter Winsey 7. herd 8. privileges 9. hope 10. Davis Cup 11. stitches 12. flock 13. White House 14. umbrella 15. ugliness 16. life preservers 17. jack-in-the-pulpit 18. terrorism 19. Pearl Harbor 20. sundial NOTRE DAME OF PIGCAWAYAN, INC. Pigcawayan, Cotabato Subject: English 4 Learning Target: Identifying Pronouns, its Kinds and Antecedents Activity No. 5 Activity Title: Personal Pronouns Pronouns are words that stand for nouns or for words that take place of nouns. Examples Swimming the Hellespont is a difficult feat. It was accomplished by Lord Byron when he was in his early thirties. Jan and Ken went to the dance. They thought it was the best so far this year. The words that the arrows point to in the examples are called antecedents. Personal Pronouns are used to refer to (1) the person speaking, (2) the person spoken to, or (3) the person, place, or thing spoken about. PERSONAL PRONOUNS Singular Plural First Person I, me we, us my, mine our, ours Second Person you you your, yours your, yours Third Person he, she, it they, them him, her their, theirs his,her,hers its Directions: Use the correct personal pronouns. Watch the words in brackets. Example: ___ often reads books. (Lisa) Answer: She often reads books. 1) is dreaming. (George) 2) is green. (the blackboard) First Person- person speaking We practiced a rousing march for the parade. Second Person-person spoken to You must submit your application soon. Third Person-person, place, or thing spoken about The blue-birds built their nest in the hedge.
    • 3) are on the wall. (the posters) 4) is running. (the dog) 5) are watching TV. (my mother and I) 6) are in the garden. (the flowers) 7) is riding his bike. (Tom) 8) is from Bristol. (Victoria) 9) has got a brother. (Diana) 10) Have got a computer, Mandy? NOTRE DAME OF PIGCAWAYAN, INC. Pigcawayan, Cotabato Subject: English 4 Learning Target: Identifying Pronouns, its Kinds and Antecedents Activity No. 8 Activity Title: Indefinite Pronouns Indefinite Pronouns are used to refer to persons, places or things, often without specifying which ones. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS Singular Plural Singular or Plural another everyone nothing both all anybody everything one few any anyone little other many more anything much somebody others most each neither someone several none either nobody something some everybody no one such Exercise 1: Choose the best response to each question 1__________ of the boys offered their help to the little old lady who was crossing the street. a. Another b. Each c. All d. One 2. My sister is the __________ wearing the red shirt. a one b. few c. most d. several 3. Which of the following indefinite pronouns can be either singular or plural? a. either b. another c. both d. any 4. Which of the following indefinite pronouns is singular? a. few b. none c. nothing d. many 5. Which of the following possessive pronouns could be used to refer to the indefinite pronoun "somebody?" a. our b. his c. its d. their 6. Which verb would correctly follow the indefinite pronoun "nobody" in a sentence? a. walk b. is c. are d. participate 7. In which sentence is the indefinite pronoun "little" used correctly? a. Little spices belong in the soup b. Because there has been little to do lately, I have been bored c. Since there are little cars left to wash, I will finish them d. I only want a little piece of spinach 8. In which sentence is the indefinite pronoun "others" used correctly? a. This one is nice; the others aren’t b. The others walk around the building while I stay watch outside c. The others parked their cars in the new lot d. Others know when his time has come to retire NO SPECIFIC ANTECEDENT Nobody was required to clean up, but many offered to assist. SPECIFIC ANTECEDENT I bought new book covers, but none was the right for his huge volume.
    • 9. Which verb agrees with the indefinite pronoun "many?" a. walks b. are c. is d. participates 10. Why are indefinite pronouns called "indefinite?" a. They do not have one definition b. They refer to nouns that are not defined in the sentence c. They are impossible to see because they are invisible d. The sentence would mean the same thing if you took out the indefinite pronouns NOTRE DAME OF PIGCAWAYAN, INC. Pigcawayan, Cotabato Subject: English 4 Learning Target: Determining Action from Linking Verbs Activity No. 9 Activity Title: Action and Linking Verbs Action Verb tells what action someone or something is performing. Examples: The dancer will attempt a daring leap. The kettle whistled incessantly. Note Dancer is the subject of will attempt a daring leap. Kettle is the subject of whistled. Action verbs can also tell what mental actions are being performed. Mental Action: I considered my decision carefully. She remembered none of the answers. Linking Verb connects its subject with a word generally found near the end of the sentence. Examples Richard Howard is a poet. Jennifer was a senior An oral recommendation should be sufficient I am being unkind The verb be is the most common linking verb. THE FORMS OF BE am am being can be have been is are being could be has been are is being may be had been was was being might be could have been were were being must be may have been shall be might have been should be shall have been will be should have been would be will have been would have been Note OTHER LINKING VERBS appear look sound become remain stay feel seem taste grow smell turn Examples After lunch she became sleepy. The bride looked radiant.
    • Most of these verbs can also serve as action verbs. To determine the function of such verb, insert am, are, or is in its place. If the resulting sentence makes sense while linking two words, then the verb is serving as a linking verb. Linking Verb: The man looks busy. (The man is busy.) Action Verb: The man looked for a taxi. Exercise A. Identifying Action and Linking Verbs. Identify each of the underlined verbs in the following sentences as either an action verb or linking verb. Example: The apple pie smells delicious. Linking verb 1. We stayed at charming roadside inns throughout our travels in England. 2. The inexperienced actor’s mannerisms seemed rehearsed and unnatural. 3. Following in the family tradition, Elizabeth became a pharmacist. 4. The trail looked perilous to the novice hikers. 5. Brussels sprouts taste bitter to me. 6. The cat appeared from behind the woodshed. 7. I tasted a hint of basil in the soup we were served. 8. The canvas on the lawn chair grew ale after being exposed to the sun. 9. The people in the odd-looking contraption stayed calm in the spite of the crowd’s laughter. 10. The leaves of the maple tree turn a vibrant shade of red in the fall.
    • NOTRE DAME OF PIGCAWAYAN, INC. Pigcawayan, Cotabato Subject: English 4 Learning Target: Determining Transitive from Intransitive Verbs Activity No. 10 Activity Title: Transitive from Intransitive Verbs Transitive Verb directs action toward someone or something named in the same sentence. Intransitive Verb does not direct action toward someone or something named in the sentence The word which a transitive verb directs its action called object of the verb. Intransitive verbs never have objects. You can determine whether a verb has a n object and thus transitive by asking Whom? or What? after the verb. Transitive: He wrote a novel. (Wrote what? Answer: novel) The doctor examined the patient. (Examined whom? Answer: patient) Intransitive: The birds flew south. (Flew what? Answer: none) She sings for the Metropolitan Opera. (Sings what? Answer: none) Exercise 1. Identifying Transitive and Intransitive Verbs Example: We arrived in time for dinner. arrived (intransitive) 1. The wind buffeted the frail sapling. 2. At midnight the weary politician conceded the election. 3. I was there on Tuesday. 4. The glider soared beside the majestic cliffs. 5. I made an appointment with the dentist. 6. The visitors noticed the new landscaping around our home. 7. The agile squirrel scampered up to the top of the tall tree. 8. The oil spill polluted the local beaches. 9. After his vacation the President appeared rested. 10. The gymnast balanced carefully on the beam. obj obj
    • NOTRE DAME OF PIGCAWAYAN, INC. Pigcawayan, Cotabato Subject: English 4 Learning Target: Pointing Adjectives and its Orders Activity No. 10 Activity Title: Adjectives Adjective is a word used to describe a noun or pronoun or to give it a more specific meaning. Examples: Green fields (What kind of fields?) The left window (Which window?) Six lobsters (How many lobsters?) Extensive rainfall (How much rainfall?) When an adjective modifies a noun, it usually precedes the noun. Occasionally, though, the adjective may follow the noun. Examples: The banjo teacher was tactful about my talent. I considered the teacher tactful. Articles Three common adjectives-a, an,and the. A and an are called indefinite articles because they refer to any one one of a class of nouns. The refers a specific noun and, therefore, is called the definite article. Indefinite: A dictator an outrage Definite: the tarantula Nouns Used as Adjectives NOUNS USED AS ADJECTIVES pencil pencil sharpener mai l mail clerk Proper Adjectives PROPER NOUNS PROPER ADJECTIVES Monday Monday morning San Francisco San Francisco streets Chaucer Chaucerian scholar Denmark Danish porcelain PRONOUNS USED AS ADJECTIVES Possessive Adjectives my, your, his, her, its, The committee gave its report. our, their Demonstrative Adjectives this, that,these, those This pen and these books are Al's. Interrogative Adjectives which, what,whose Which orchard do you own? Indefinite Adjectives Singular nouns Each cruiser flew a flag another, each, either, little, much, neither, one Plural nouns Several choirs competed for top honors. both,few,many,several Singular or Plural We appreciate any donations all,any,more,most,other some
    • Compound Adjectives Hyphenated: ready-made clothes, mail-order catalogs Combined: crossword puzzle, warmhearted invitation Separated: West German embassy Verbs Used as Adjectives. Verbs used as adjectives usually end in –ing or –ed are called participles. VERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES I picked up the crying baby. They were enlightened parents. Regular Function As an Adjective Noun The deck of the boat tilted. I sat in the deck chair. Pronoun This was an idyllic life. This life was idyllic. Verb I waxed the table. The waxed table shone. TYPICAL ORDER OF ADJECTIVES Article or pronoun used a or your as an an adjective Size large Age old Color green Participle hand-blown Proper Adjective French Noun Used as an Adj. wine Noun bottle Exercise 1. Identifying Adjectives. Copy each underlined noun or pronoun in the following paragraph and write all of the adjectives, if any, that modify it. Be prepared to point out any nouns, pronouns, or verbs used as adjectives. Example: Collections of great art treasures have been preserved in many places around the world. places-many Dresden, an East German (1) city, houses, some of the greatest art (2) treasures in the world. From the sixteenth (3) century to the eighteenth century, the Saxon (4) electors collected art from the four (5) corners of the globe and brought them to this (6) location. Though the Saxon (7) reign was short-lived, the treasures have not been; most (8) pieces even survived the Allied (9) bombing during the World War II. Today, the public can view delicate Oriental (10) porcelain and sensitive, moving (11) paintings of great (12) artists. The Green Vault holds precious (13) metals and jewels, the work of the best European (14) artisans. One display contains shining diamond boot (15) buckles and jeweled shirt (16) buttons. To estimate the (17) value of these (18) treasures would prove virtually impossible; (19) many are priceless. For example, at one auction, eight Meissan China (20) pieces sold for $313,720. Exercise 2. Putting Adjectives in Order. Put the adjectives following each underlined noun in the proper order and write the entire phrase on your paper. Example: jacket- down-filled, new, winter, a A new down-filled winter jacket 1. sports car- British, that, small, red 2. road- dirt, a, winding, narrow 3. vase- lovely, this, hand-painted, Japanese 4. insects-flying, iridescent, many 5. coin- bronze, ancient, the, Roman 6. mouse- field, frightened, the, brown, tiny 7. shirt-green, the, silk 8. kitten- Siamese, blue-eyed, little, a 9. library-red, new, brick, our 10. stories-mystery, exciting, several
    • cNOTRE DAME OF PIGCAWAYAN, INC. Pigcawayan, Cotabato Subject: English 4 Learning Target: Identifying the Uses of Adverbs Activity No. 11 Activity Title: Adverbs Adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb. Adverbs Modifying Verbs Where? When? Inflation zoomed upward. She never cleaned the room. The jurors remained there. Later, we toured the museum In what manner? To what extent? He officially announced it. His temper was still boiling. She was graciously helping. he always did it right. Adverbs Modifying Adverbs Modifying Adjectives Adverbs To what extent? To what extent? The solution was quite logical. He worked very competently It was extremely sour lemon. I am not completely finished. Nouns Used as Adverbs Nouns As Adverbs Evenings are restful times I work evenings. (Work when?) My home is miles from here. Let's head home.(Head where?) Identifying Adverbs. Each of the following sentences contains from one to four adverbs. Write each adverb and then write the word or words that it modifies. Example: We sailed the boat all afternoon. all (afternoon) afternoon (sailed) 1. Yesterday, the architects sketchily explained the plans they have for the office building. 2. A southerly storm approached quickly, drenching the area with an extremely heavy downpour. 3. Almost apologetically she presented her handmade gift. 4. The roller coaster crazily raced u and down before it even actually released its dizzy passengers. 5. Her ghastly pallor was attributed to the extremely long illness from which she had recently recovered. 6. My hand jerked involuntarily, and my glass crashed violently against the floor. 7. The delivery person apparently found my note but did not read it. 8. Though it was an uphill battle, I was extremely happy with the final product.
    • 9. His manly physique certainly helped him win the role the repertory’s production. 10. he often prattles continuously and monotonously. NOTRE DAME OF PIGCAWAYAN, INC. Pigcawayan, Cotabato Subject: English 4 Learning Target: Identifying Prepositions Activity No. 12 Activity Title: Prepositions Preposition relates the noun or pronoun that appears with it to another word in the sentence. Prepositions aboard aside from by means of in spite of out of unto about as of concerning instead of outside up above at considering into over upon according to atop despite in view of owing to with across from barring down like past within across from because of during near prior to without after before except nearby regarding against behind for next to round alongside below from of since along with beneath in off throughout amid beside in addition to on till along besides in back of on account to ahead of between in front of onto together with among beyond in place of on top of toward apart from but in regard to opposite under around by inside out underneath Location: The brush fire burned atop the hill. Direction: The brush fire burned toward our campsite. Time: The fire burned for three days. Cause: The fire started because of carelessness. Possession: Smoke from the fire could be seen for miles. Prepositional phrases is a group of words that includes preposition and a noun or pronoun. The noun or pronoun with as preposition is called the object of the preposition. Examples: I walked slightly ahead of her. The shampoo bottle on the shelf was almost empty. We were adopted by a lovable, brown-eyed puppy. Our new house is located near stores and schools. obj obj obj obj obj
    • Exercise 1: Identifying the Prepositional Phrases. Write the prepositional phrases from the following paragraph and underline each preposition. Example: During my vacation I discovered the exciting sport of cross-country skiing. During my vacation, of cross-country skiing 1. The thrill of cross-country skiing is infecting people around the globe. 2. The sport originated across the Atlantic Ocean in the Scandinaviann countries and was brought to the United States by the settlers. 3. According to recent figures, more than two million people are now cross- country skiers. 4. Cross-country skiers can compete for prizes in races held around the world. 5. A Norwegian race, the Birkenbeiner, honors two skiers who heroically carried a Norwegian prince to safety amid a civil war in the early thirteenth century.
    • NOTRE DAME OF PIGCAWAYAN, INC. Pigcawayan, Cotabato Subject: English 4 Learning Target: Identifying Conjunctions and its Kinds Activity No. 13 Activity Title: Conjunctions Conjunction is a word used to connect other words or groups of words. COORDINATING CONJUNCTION and but for nor or so With Nouns and Pronouns: Inge and I attended the lecture. With Verbs: Our dog whined and scratched at the door. With Adjectives: The steak was tender, large, yet tasteless. With adverbs: The man responded quickly but incorrectly. With Prepositional Phrases: I will go to Greece or to Spain. With Subordinate Ideas: The agency said that jobs were available but that qualified personnel to fill them were not. With Complete Ideas: He seemed distressed, so we discussed his problem. CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTION both….and either…or neither…nor not only…but also whether…or With Nouns: Both the employers and the employees agree. With Nouns and Pronouns: Call either Ed or me if you need help. With Adjectives: The rain was not only heavy but also cold. With Prepositional Phrases: Put the check either in the drawer or beside the telephone. With Complete Ideas: Neither did the swelling go down nor did the pain subside. SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS after because lest till although before provided until as even if now that when as if even though since whenever as long as how so that where as much as if than wherever as soon as inasmuch as that while as though in order that though unless Examples: The referees watched carefully lest they miss a key play. Although the fumigator sprayed, the termites remained. Often act as prepositions after, before, since, till, and until Often act as adverbs after, before, when, and where main idea main idea subordinate idea subordinate idea
    • Exercise 1: Identifying Conjunctions in Sentences. Write the conjunction in each sentence and identify it as coordinating, correlative, or subordinating. example: I could not decide whether your answer was right or wrong. whether or (correlative) 1. The physics instructor explained the theory, but I did not understand it. 2. Roger is significantly taller than Doug is. 3. You should eat salads since they are good for your digestion. 4. I checked several banquet facilities before I finally chose this one. 5. Unless you reform, you will be dismissed. 6. I burned my tongue, for the soup was till too hot to eat. 7. Whenever the shepherd gave the order, the dog began to round up strays. 8. Not only can you do some packing, but you can also carry out some boxes. 9. Persimmons and pumpkins can be used to make excellent spice cookies. 10. Now that the harvest is behind them, the farmers can relax. NOTRE DAME OF PIGCAWAYAN, INC.
    • Pigcawayan, Cotabato Subject: English 4 Learning Target: Identifying Interjections Activity No. 14 Activity Title: Interjections Interjection is a word that expresses feeling or emotion and functions independently of a sentence. SOME COMMON INTERJECTIONS ah dear hey ouch aha goodness hurray psst alas gracious oh tsk well whew wow Exclamation marks or commas usually set off an interjection from the rest of the sentence. Example: Ouch! That bee sting throbs. Goodness, if you don’t leave now, you will be late! Exercise 1. Using Interjections. Write five sentences containing interjections that express the following general emotions. Underline the interjections in your sentences. Example: surprise Oh, what was that noise? 1. indecision 2. sorrow 3. urgency 4. exhaustion 5. fear NOTRE DAME OF PIGCAWAYAN, INC. Pigcawayan, Cotabato Subject: English 4 Learning Target: Giving or Identifying Meaning of Words
    • Activity No. 15 Activity Title: Recognizing Context Clues Recognizing Context Clues Often, you can pick up clues about a word’s meaning from its context. the context of a word is the sentence, the surrounding words or the situation in which a word is used. Example: Dr. Lindsay’s mechanical servant, Eddie, is the ideal automation. The words mechanical servant tell you that an automation is a robot. It is the clue to automation. Exercise 1: Underline the word or group of words that gives clue to the meaning of each printed word in the sentence. Example: Arid lands that are dry and barren, are useless for farming. 1. She was a fastidious young woman who never permitted her fingers to remain soiled or her hair to be disordered. 2. Most volcanoes are dormant, but they could erupt at anytime. 3. Sufferers of vertigo, a disorder that causes extreme dizziness, are advised to avoid the roller coaster. 4. The police do not permit people to gather at the scene of an accident their first duty is to disperse them. 5. The tiger ate voraciously until nothing was left of the carcass but bones. 6. The flag the guard lowers every twilight is the banner of your trust and love. 7. Homer’s hero, Odysseus, was an intrepid, sailor that is, he was fearless and bold. 8. The old lady enjoyed the company of children if they were neat and clean, but she abhorred them if they were dirty. 9. “I demand an apology and a refund”, The irate customer shouted at the timid store manager. 10. Having hidden the purloined jewelry, the chief napped. NOTRE DAME OF PIGCAWAYAN, INC. Pigcawayan, Cotabato Subject: English 4 Learning Target: Observing Correct Agreement between the Subject and the Verb. Activity No. 16 Activity Title: Subject-Verb Agreement
    • Basic Rule: The basic rule states that a singular subject takes a singular verb, while a plural subject takes a plural verb. NOTE: The trick is in knowing whether the subject is singular or plural. The next trick is recognizing a singular or plural verb. Hint: Verbs do not form their plurals by adding an s as nouns do. In order to determine which verb is singular and which one is plural, think of which verb you would use with he or she and which verb you would use with they. Example: talks, talk Which one is the singular form? Which word would you use with he? We say, "He talks." Therefore, talks is singular. We say, "They talk." Therefore, talk is plural. 1. Two singular subjects connected by or or nor require a singular verb. My aunt or my uncle is arriving by train today. 2. Two singular subjects connected by either/or or neither/nor require a singular verb as in Rule 1. Neither Juan nor Carmen is available. Either Kiana or Casey is helping today with stage decorations. 3. When I is one of the two subjects connected by either/or or neither/nor, put it second and follow it with the singular verb am. Neither she nor I am going to the festival 4. When a singular subject is connected by or or nor to a plural subject, put the plural subject last and use a plural verb. The serving bowl or the plates go on that shelf. 5. When a singular and plural subject are connected by either/or or neither/nor, put the plural subject last and use a plural verb. Neither Jenny nor the others are available. 6. As a general rule, use a plural verb with two or more subjects when they are connected by and. A car and a bike are my means of transportation. 7. Sometimes the subject is separated from the verb by words such as along with, as well as, besides, or not. Ignore these expressions when determining whether to use a singular or plural verb. The politician, along with the newsmen, is expected shortly. Excitement, as well as nervousness, is the cause of her shaking. 8. The pronouns each, everyone, every one, everybody, anyone, anybody, someone, and somebody are singular and require singular verbs. Do not be misled by what follows of. Each of the girls sings well. Every one of the cakes is gone. NOTE: Everyone is one word when it means everybody. Every one is two words when the meaning is each one. 9. With words that indicate portions—percent, fraction, part, majority, some, all, none, remainder, and so forth —look at the noun in your of phrase (object of the preposition) to determine whether to use a singular or plural verb. If the object of the preposition is singular, use a singular verb. If the object of the preposition is plural, use a plural verb. Fifty percent of the pie has disappeared. Pie is the object of the preposition of. Fifty percent of the pies have disappeared. 10. When either and neither are subjects, they always take singular verbs. Neither of them is available to speak right now. Either of us is capable of doing the job. 11. The words here and there have generally been labeled as adverbs even though they indicate place. In sentences beginning with here or there, the subject follows the verb. There are four hurdles to jump. There is a high hurdle to jump. 12. Use a singular verb with sums of money or periods of time. Ten dollars is a high price to pay. Five years is the maximum sentence for that offense 13. Sometimes the pronoun who, that, or which is the subject of a verb in the middle of the sentence. The pronouns who, that, and which become singular or plural according to the noun directly in front of them. So, if that noun is singular, use a singular verb. If it is plural, use a plural verb. Salma is the scientist who writes/write the reports. The word in front of who is scientist, which is singular. Therefore, use the singular verb writes. He is one of the men who does/do the work. The word in front of who is men, which is plural. Therefore, use the plural verb do 14. Collective nouns such as team and staff may be either singular or plural depending on their use in the sentence. The staff is in a meeting. Staff is acting as a unit here.
    • The staff are in disagreement about the findings. The staff are acting as separate individuals in this example. The sentence would read even better as: The staff members are in disagreement about the findings. Exercise 1. Underline the verb that agrees with the subject. 1. The baby, as well as the mother, (feels, feel) better after the tragedy. 2. Kyle, together with Danielle, (accomplish, accomplishes) the project on time. 3. Egg, in addition to ham and bread, (satisfy, satisfies) the hungry man. 4. Neither the son nor the parents (attend, attends) the graduation rites. 5. All of us (have, has) been given talents to enhance and share. 6. Only few members (attend, attends) the PTA general assembly, 7. None of God’s people ( is, are) deprived of the right to happiness. 8. Neither the candidate for President can (solve, solves) the country’s peace and order problem. 9. Many good politicians (has, have) fulfilled all that were promised before the election. 10. Less information about one’s life story (create, creates) suspense. NOTRE DAME OF PIGCAWAYAN, INC. Pigcawayan, Cotabato Subject: English 4 Learning Target: Expressing Ideas, Facts, Information or beliefs using Idiomatic Expressions Activity No. 17 Activity Title: Idiomatic Expressions Idiomatic Expressions are found in the daily speech of people rather than in formal composition. An idiom is a group of words having a different meaning from the combined meanings of the words expressed. When you say, “I have butterflies in my stomach,” you do not literally mean that you have many butterflies inside your stomach. You simply mean that you are so nervous. Study the following sentences
    • 1. Alyssa opened her eyes in a strange room. 2. Mrs. Sandoval’s explanation opened her daughter’s eyes. Exercise 1: Find the correct meaning from the box below. 1. Fred is conscientious enough to make a headway in his studies. 2. We will succeed if we put our shoulder to the wheel. 3. My friend bears her burdens with courage 4. We usually lay bare our innermost thoughts to our close friends. 5. What mysterious man always keeps everything in the dark. 6. Listening to the conversation, the detective got wind of their plains. 7. It was a hard problem but the guidance counselor cast light on it and then, it was easy. 8. When you apply for a job, they will take into account your good grades. 9. Since Dan came out of the prison, he has turned over a new leaf. 10. When Nelia’s mother lost her job, they all had to tighten their belts and manage to live on their father’s small wage. Exercise 2: Idioms with Key Words from Special Categories 1. My students had planned to play a trick on me, but because they were so quiet and attentive I_______________. 2. Why don’t you take_________________if you’re tired? 3. I always expect that a gourmet like him will _________on such a big occasion like this. 4. I didn’t know anyone at the party and felt like _________among all my sister’s high school friends. 5. At first, I didn’t recognize Chelsea Santos when she stopped me in the park because I hadn’t seen her for_________. make a beast of oneself eat large quantities of food, leaving little for others a cat's nap a short sleep taken during the day donkey's years a very long time a fish out of water someone who feels uncomfortable in unfamiliar surroundings or company smell a rat detect something suspicious; sense that something is wrong NOTRE DAME OF PIGCAWAYAN, INC. Pigcawayan, Cotabato Subject: English 4 Learning Target: Identifying Simple Subjects and Predicates Activity No. 17 Activity Title: Simple Subject and Predicates heard some news reveal explained hides or conceals something to progress consider do our best completely changed one's ways endures some misfortune spend less money at a time of financial difficulty
    • Sentence is a group of words with two main parts: a complete subject and a complete predicate. Together, these parts express a complete thought. COMPLETE SUBJECTS COMPLETE PREDICATES Flowers bloom. A bell-clanging street car moved through the intersection. A soufflé or quiche is a delicious main dish. The candidate's pragmatic approach impressed the voters attending the voters attending the rally last Thursday. to fiscal problems Exercise 1: Recognizing Complete Subjects and Complete Predicates. Copy the following paragraph, drawing a vertical line between each complete subject and complete predicate. Some sentences may require more than one line. example: The gently rocking boat ▐ lulled us to sleep. 1. Morning came quickly. 2. Long before sunrise, the alarm clock rang. 3. Sluggishly, we dragged ourselves from a restful sleep. 4. At five o’ clock we left the dock 5. We were sailing out of the bay on a yacht equipped with every convenience. 6. From bow to stem, the boat measured forty feet., 7. During the night, a fog had crept in. 8. it greatly limited visibility and made the air cold. 9. Sophisticated directional equipment led us through the fog. 10. Inside the cabin we were warm, dry and eager to begin deep-sea fishing. NOTRE DAME OF PIGCAWAYAN, INC. Pigcawayan, Cotabato Subject: English 4 Learning Target: Identifying Complete Subjects and Predicates Activity No. 18 Activity Title: Subject and Predicates Simple Subject is the essential noun, pronoun, or group of words acting as a noun that cannot be left out of the complete subject. Simple predicate is the essential verb or verb that cannot be left out of the complete predicate.
    • SIMPLE SUBJECTS AND SIMPLE PREDICATES Complete Subjects Complete Predicates Small pocket calculators fit nicely into coat pockets. Ronald Reagan starred in many films in his early career. Pictures of Saturn have certainly revealed much about the planet Compound subject is two or more subjects that have the same verb and are joined by a conjunction such as and or or. example: The train and car collided at the intersection. Nickels, dimes or quarters are used in these meters. Compound Verb is two or more verbs that have the same subject and are joined by a conjunction such as and or or. example: I neither saw them nor overheard them. Most of the passengers had left the ship and begun to explore the city. Some sentences may contain both a compound subject and a compound verb. example: The private plane and the airliner flew too close touched wing tips, and almost crashed. Exercise 1: Identifying Subjects and Verbs. Copy each of the following sentences, drawing a vertical line between the complete subject and complete predicate. Then, underline each subject once and each subject twice. example: The state with the most people │ is California. 1. Some apes have been taught signs for words. 2. Rebecca Latimer Felton was the first woman to serve as a United States Senator. 3. Many of the current television programs are airing sensitive controversial issues. 4. Members of the Coast Guard rescued the passengers of the sinking ocean liner. 5. A glittering Monte Carlo lures the wealthy to its port. 6. The behavior of sharks has been studied by biologists. 7. Intricate ironwork decorated the outside of the stately New Orleans home 8. People in stressful situations will often show symptoms of fatigue. 9. The pyramids in Egypt have attracted tourists for thousands of years. 10. New York is the setting for many pieces of American literature. NOTRE DAME OF PIGCAWAYAN, INC. Pigcawayan, Cotabato Subject: English 4 Learning Target: Identifying the different Kinds of Sentences Activity No. 18 Activity Title: The Four Functions of Sentences Declarative sentence states an idea and ends with a period. example: Different wild flowers grow in different regions of the United States. Most people do not enjoy taking risks. Interrogative sentence asks question and ends with a question mark. example: What harm did the delay cause? Who designed the Guggenheim Museum? Imperative sentence gives an order r direction and ends with a period or exclamation mark.
    • example: Call the insurance agent, please. Watch out for that car! Would you please stop that! Exclamatory sentence conveys emotion and ends an exclamation mark. example: The new baby just arrived! (declarative) Isn’t her voice magnificent! (interrogative) Perfect! Exercise 1: Identifying the Four Functions of Sentences. Identify each sentence as declarative, interrogative, imperative, or exclamatory. Then write the end mark for each sentence. example: As I ran down the street, I heard someone call to me. declarative (1) “Hey, you (2) Slow down for a minute (3) I bet you haven’t had breakfast yet (4) Here-how about some granola (5) I stopped in surprise as the garbage collector lobbed two packages of English muffins at me (6) “ Do you know how much perfectly good bread they throw away there” (7) He gestured to the grocery store that backed my apartment