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GENERAL OUTLINE OLD SKOOL STRENGTH TRAINING FOR • Background • Endurance athletes don’t need to strength train. MULTI-SPORT ATHLETES • Research • Strength training needs to be muscular endurance. • Rationale • TechniquesW. Matthew Silvers, Ph.D., C.S.C.S. • Recommendations Whitworth University • Open Mic 1 2 3 Immediate NEW SKOOL ENERGY SYSTEMS CORE STRENGTH • Muscle strength and power can • Improving core strength improve performance. makes sense, but... Immediate System • ~ 5% of a distance race is anaerobic. (Green & Patla, 1992; Hauswirth & Lehénaff, 2001) Exercise Intensity • Little speciﬁc research to Glycolytic System indicate that it will improve • Reduce the incidence of overuse injuries? race performance or decrease injury potential. • More bang for your buck! VO2max (Abt et al., 2007; Stanton et al., 2004) Mitochondrial Respiration • Until proven otherwise, it is prudent to include core Exercise Duration work in your training. 4 5 6 LACTATE THRESHOLD VO2max ECONOMY • Surprisingly, not too much research on this. • VO 2max typically does not improve after • Economy, better known as efﬁciency, lifting in trained and untrained populations. improves (~4-8%) with strength training. • When untrained individuals lifted, LT (Ferrauti et al., 2010; Hickson et al., 1988; Kelly et al., 2008; Mikkola et al., (Johnston et al., 1997; Millet et al., 2002; Paavolainen et al., 1999a; Rønnestad improved - big surprise! 2007; Millet et al., 2002; Stanton et al., 2004; Saunders et al., 2006) et al., 2010; Saunders et al., 2006; Spurrs et al., 2003; Sunde et al., 2010; Turner et al., 2003) (Marcinik et al., 1991) • When trained people lifted, LT did not • Practically, this is ~ 2-4 ml/kg/min less O 2 improve. consumed at a given speed. (Jung, 2003; Paavolainen et al., 1999a) • More importantly, it means you can go faster at your VO2max (vVO2max). 7 8 9
PERFORMANCE PREDICTIONS PREDICTIONS • Improved 3K run time (16:30→14:45; • vVO 2max is a better predictor of 10K and • Relative leg strength index (RLS) and jump 10:17→10:07) (Kelly et al., 2008; Spurrs et al., 2003) 90K race performance in elite runners. height correlated with average speed during (Noakes et al., 1990) 5K run. • Improved 5K run time (18:24→17:45) (Paavolainen et al., 1999a) • vVO 2max and vLT signiﬁcantly correlated (Yamauchi et al., 2010) • Improved cycle TTE @ 80% VO 2max with 3K run times. (Slattery et al., 2006) • Sprint and jump performance were strongly correlated with 5K and 10K run (71→85 min) (Hickson et al., 1988) • 82% of 3K time explained by vVO2max performances. • Improved PO for 40-min cycle TT (~30 W) • 94% of 3K time explained by vVO2max + vLT (Paavolainen et al., 1999b, 1999c) • Likely that these ﬁndings can be (Rønnestad et al., 2010) • Improved PO for 5-min cycle sprint after extrapolated to cycling (March et al., 2011) 180-min ride (~30 W) (Rønnestad et al., 2011) 10 11 12WHY DOES S & P WORK? WHY DOES S & P WORK? WHY DOES S & P WORK? • Improved neuromuscular recruitment • Greater efﬁciency reduces VO 2 and RE at a • Improved utilization of the SSC? increases force production with less given submax speed giving you “more in the musculature. tank.” • Exaggerated with plyos, so you can potentially improve it. • Increased strength of Type I ﬁbers improves • Greater Type IIb conversion to Type IIa? • Improved muscle stiffness? endurance? • Probably not - explosive training augments IIb • There has to be an optimal level of stiffness - ﬁnd • Might prolong reliance on Type IIa ﬁbers in a race. ﬁbers, whereas endurance training promotes the shift from IIb to IIa. the right balance to not compromise stride length and rate, economy, or injury prevention. • May delay fatigue in muscles that tire quickly, such (Hanon et al., 2005; Wilson et al., 2010) as the bi-articular muscles of the hip. (Hanon et al., 2005) 13 14 15 S & P TECHNIQUES S & P TECHNIQUES S & P TECHNIQUES • Standard resistance exercises • Olympic-style lifts • Plyometrics • Multi-joint, closed kinetic chain movements • Trains whole-body coordination • Exaggerate eccentric, isometric, and concentric contractions to utilize stretch-shortening cycle • Movement speciﬁcity • Focus is on velocity-speciﬁc training and • Focus is on basic muscle function, symmetry, and maximal muscle power • Focus is on speed of movement and minimal contact times balance. • Examples: cleans, shrugs, jerks, snatches • Examples: squats, lunges, step-ups, • Examples: squat jumps, box/depth jumps, bounds, hurdle hops. 16 17 18
RECOMMENDATIONS RECOMMENDATIONS RECOMMENDATIONS• S & P workouts should be periodized and • S & P workouts should be periodized and • S & P workouts should be periodized and synchronized with current training schedule. synchronized with current training schedule. synchronized with current training schedule. • Early off-season: work on muscle endurance • Early race season: introduce power • Reverse linear for S (general lifts are good here) movements (Olympic-style lifts and plyos) muscular endurance works, but not • Mid-late off-season: progress towards • Race-season: maintain strength/power necessarily for S & P I muscular strength (general lifts still good, but endurance (functional lifts recommended) progressions. progression to speciﬁc lifts and/or Olympic lifts recommended) • Late race season: Taper off to remove • A traditional undulating strength work ~ 2 weeks prior to big races. V model appears to work. Time 19 20 21RECOMMENDATIONS RECOMMENDATIONS RECOMMENDATIONS• S & P workouts before or after endurance • Lifting tips Muscle Strength Focus: train the muscle to Muscle Power Focus: velocity-speciﬁc workouts? • Keep it SIMPLE produce max force training • Before probably best, when • Keep it FAST (Tanimoto et al., 2009) Sets: 3-5 Sets: 3-5 neuromuscular system is fresh. Reps: 3-6 Reps: 3-5 • Practically speaking, many coaches and athletes • 8-12 week program Load: ≥ 80% 1-RM Load: 55-75% 1-RM like it the other way around. • 2-3 times per week Muscle Endurance Muscle Hypertrophy • When possible, perform S & P workouts on • Consult a professional before attempting Focus: stress the muscles Focus: put in a lot of work lighter intensity days or off-days. Olympic lifts if you have no prior experience. continuously and muscle damage Sets: 1-3 Sets: 4-6 Reps: 15-20 Reps: 6-12 Load: 50-60% 1-RM Load: 60-80% 1-RM 22 23 24RECOMMENDATIONS CONCLUSIONS FINAL THOUGHTS• Plyo tips • Supplementing your training with an • The research presented is convincing, but appropriate S & P program appears to: many studies have small sample sizes, • Need base of strength (8-12 wks) and untrained populations, and methodological good health before plyos • Not affect VO or LT 2max factors that make interpretation and • Start with 80-100 foot contacts/session • Improve economy, vLT, and vVO 2max generalizability of the ﬁndings difﬁcult. • 4-6 week program • Improve 3-5K run times and cycling • 2-3 times per week performance • Consequently, the known info does not represent recommendations that are “written in stone.” 25 26 27
FINAL THOUGHTS THANK YOU!• Many of the studies REPLACED some of the • If you have additional endurance training and still saw beneﬁts - questions, please feel free you may not need to add S & P on top of to contact me at what you’re currently doing. firstname.lastname@example.org• Don’t just go through the motions - every • Good luck at the races! rep should be performed PERFECTLY.• Consult a professional if you have little/no experience with resistance training. 28 29