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Cloze Test and C- TestSilvira Florencya 090210401061Tri Wayati 090210401064Qadrina Lailyn Amrullah 090210401067Wahyu Arista 090210401090Dwi Wirastianti Novita S 100210401136
Cloze Test The Definition of Cloze Test A cloze test involves a piece of text, from which a number of words have been removed. The Cloze Test is intended to measure students’ ability to decode interrupted or mutilated messages by making the most acceptable substitutions from all the contextual clues available. The principle of cloze testing is based on the Gestalt theory of “closure” (closing gaps in patterns subconsciously).
The Characteristic of Cloze Test Cloze test items consist of words that are deleted from a text after allowing a few sentences of introduction. The deletion rate is mechanically set, usually between every 5th and 8th . Candidates have to fill each gap by supplying the words they think has been deleted (Weir, 1990:46).
The Varieties of Cloze Test In the fixed-ratio method, every n-th word is indiscriminately deleted. n is its frequency that determines the number of deletions. The interval deletion of cloze test is between 3rd – 11th word. The most widely favoured for deletion: 5th, 6th, and 7th. Variable-ratio method omits only certain kind of words which the constructor thinks of the importance for a certain purposes, such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, etc. In modified fixed-ratio method, words are deleted on a regular counting basis, but certain items are skipped. These items include names of persons, places, objects, dates, months etc.
The Example of Cloze Test Lead in Hidden TreasureOnce upon a time, a farmer had three sons. The farmer was rich……… had many fields. When ……… farmer was dying, he ……… histhree sons to ……… . “I have left you ……… which will make you………”, he told them. “But ……… must dig in all ……… fields to find the De……… where the treasure was ………”. After the old man ………, his letthree lazy sons ……… out into the fields. ……… began to dig. “I’ll ……… dethe first to find ……… place where the treasure ……… buried”, criedthe eldest ……… . “That’s the field where ……… father put thetreasure”, ……… another son. The three ……… dug all the fields ………several years, but they ……… no treasure. However, many ……… grewin the fields ……… the sons had dug. The vegetables made them veryrich.
The Differences between Cloze Test and Fill In The Blank1. The appearance of Cloze and completion type or simple blank filling test/fill-in blank test is similar, but they are different.2. In Cloze test, the deleted words are not deleted subjectively but systematically. Besides, it is over substantial portions of connected discourse (dealing with contextually interrelated series of blanks, not isolated ones).3. Fill-in blank tests are constructed over single isolated sentences.
The Scoring MethodAccording to Krachen (1978) there are two methods of scoringthe cloze test:•The exact word scoring method in which the completion iscounted as correct as long as it is exactly the same as theoriginal word being deleted from the text.•The approximate word scoring method in which thecorrectness of an item is put on the basis of its suitability tothe total surrounding of the text.
The Advantages of Cloze Test The Disadvantages of Cloze Test3.Easy to construct and easy toscore if the exact-word scoring It is difficult to determinemethod is applied. whether a certain word is appropriate to the text or not,2. With the 5th word deletion, so that is takes a long time toa large number of items can be check.taken on a relatively a shorttext.3. It is claimed as a validmeasure for readingcomprehension test.
C-Test The Definition of C-Test The C-test is an adaptation of the cloze technique that has been developed by Christinee Klein-Braley and Ulrich Raatz in 1983. Weir (1990:49) claims that C-test is based on the same theoretical rationale as cloze. In C-test, “the rule of two” has been applied: the second half of every second word has been deleted, beginning with the second word of the second sentence; the first and last sentences are left intact.To provide a lead-in (to give test takers a chance to become familiar with the author’s style and approach to the subject of the text).
The Example of C-Test Lead in Once there was a merchant family who owned a dog and a ni___donkey. One night when t__ owner o_ the ho___ was fa__ a sleepi_ his b__, a th___ broke in___ the ho___ to st___ some o_ the Deown___ possessions. Th_ donkey w__ saw th_ thief, wo__ the d__ le tedup a__ said, “H_! Look! Th___ a th___ in t__ house! W__ don’t y__bark a__ wake t__ master u_? “ Why should I care about ourmaster?” the dog replied.
The Scoring MethodAccording to Weir (1990:49), only an exact word scoringmethod is adopted in C-test. Because of the partially deletionof the words, it is rare for the test takers to find more than oneanswer for each items.
The Comparison with the Cloze TestThe C-test appears to have some advantages over the cloze test:By “damaging” every second word, we can obtain a morerepresentative sample of all the different language elements in thetext than in the cloze, where normally only every fifth or sixth wordis left out.Many more items can be included in much shorter texts, makingthe test less time-consuming for the students than the cloze.Unlike the cloze test, scoring is easy and objective.As a rule, students actually like doing C-tests, whereas the clozetest is one of the most frustrating test types for learners.
The Advantages of C-Test The Disadvantages of C-Test3.In C-test, a variety of texts 3.The face validity is loware recommended. A short because there are many blankstext can be formed a large spaces.number of items. 5.If the isolated words are5.The correction of the task difficult, the test takerscan be objectively scored as it concentrate their mind inis rare to have more than one guessing the vocabularyanswer. instead of comprehending the rading text.7.The results are encouragingin terms of reliability andvalidity.