The social ecological model


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The social ecological model

  1. 1. The SocialEcological Model A multifaceted Approach
  2. 2. Key Concept  The social-ecological model represents a multifaceted approach to getting people active.  The social-ecological model is used to better understand human behaviour and it’s interactions with the social and physical environments and the effect of policy decisions made by governments and organisations.
  3. 3. Overview  There are many factors that influence a persons engagement with physical activity programs  Understanding these factors allows programmers to develop programs that better ‘fit’ the individual
  4. 4. Overview  Previous models of physical activity intervention (such as the Stages of Change model or the “Self Efficacy” model focused solely on the individual.  Effective physical activity interventions are multidimensional and understand that not one factor that influences the individual but many.
  5. 5. Overview  The underlying core principles of the social-ecological model concern the interrelationships between the different levels of influence (of PA behaviour) on the individual.  The social-ecological model looks at the interrelationships between the following areas:  The Individual domain  The Social Environment domain  The Physical environment domain  The Policy domain
  6. 6. The Social-Ecological Model
  7. 7. Level 1- The Individual Domain  Is at the center of the model as ultimately we are trying to affect a change in physical activity behaviour of individuals
  8. 8. Level 1- The Individual Domain  At this level, age, gender, self- efficacy, knowledge, values, attitudes, beliefs and preferences are all important factors  However it has to be recognised that external factors will also effect the individual
  9. 9. Level 2: The Social Environment Domain  The first of the external forces acting on the individual  The influence of people close to us affect our behaviour  Family, friends, peers and organisations
  10. 10. Level 2: The Social Environment Domain  This domain also includes any individual, organisation, business or institution that collectively comprise the larger societal fabric  Schools, workplaces and community organisations (such as sporting clubs) influence our behaviours in very real ways, encouraging and supporting active behaviour.
  11. 11. Level 3: The Physical Environment Domain  This domain includes the natural and man made influences on a persons ability to be active  It includes things like roads, parks, public transport, shops, housing, commercial business and factories.  These factors may encourage or discourage physical activity depending on design and location.
  12. 12. Level 3: The Physical Environment Domain  For people to be able to participate in a physically active lifestyle, good urban planning is required.  This includes good planning of open spaces for games, dog parks, jogging/walking and cycling paths which are safe, practical and have good lighting  People need easy access and safety
  13. 13. Level 4: The Policy Domain  Policy is defined as an authoritative decision made by a local, state or federal government body.  This domain refers to the policies, laws and regulations by which we live.  These policies, laws and regulations effect our ability to live a healthy life  Environmental change is included in this domain
  14. 14. Level 4: The Policy Domain  Policies of schools and workplaces that encourage activity are important in developing a healthy workforce and nation  Government policy and funding can do the following things:  Create physical and natural environmental change  Create jobs through skills and training  Funding for sports grounds and clubs  Change taxes for sports clubs