The social ecological model

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  • 1. The SocialEcological Model A multifaceted Approach
  • 2. Key Concept  The social-ecological model represents a multifaceted approach to getting people active.  The social-ecological model is used to better understand human behaviour and it’s interactions with the social and physical environments and the effect of policy decisions made by governments and organisations.
  • 3. Overview  There are many factors that influence a persons engagement with physical activity programs  Understanding these factors allows programmers to develop programs that better ‘fit’ the individual
  • 4. Overview  Previous models of physical activity intervention (such as the Stages of Change model or the “Self Efficacy” model focused solely on the individual.  Effective physical activity interventions are multidimensional and understand that not one factor that influences the individual but many.
  • 5. Overview  The underlying core principles of the social-ecological model concern the interrelationships between the different levels of influence (of PA behaviour) on the individual.  The social-ecological model looks at the interrelationships between the following areas:  The Individual domain  The Social Environment domain  The Physical environment domain  The Policy domain
  • 6. The Social-Ecological Model
  • 7. Level 1- The Individual Domain  Is at the center of the model as ultimately we are trying to affect a change in physical activity behaviour of individuals
  • 8. Level 1- The Individual Domain  At this level, age, gender, self- efficacy, knowledge, values, attitudes, beliefs and preferences are all important factors  However it has to be recognised that external factors will also effect the individual
  • 9. Level 2: The Social Environment Domain  The first of the external forces acting on the individual  The influence of people close to us affect our behaviour  Family, friends, peers and organisations
  • 10. Level 2: The Social Environment Domain  This domain also includes any individual, organisation, business or institution that collectively comprise the larger societal fabric  Schools, workplaces and community organisations (such as sporting clubs) influence our behaviours in very real ways, encouraging and supporting active behaviour.
  • 11. Level 3: The Physical Environment Domain  This domain includes the natural and man made influences on a persons ability to be active  It includes things like roads, parks, public transport, shops, housing, commercial business and factories.  These factors may encourage or discourage physical activity depending on design and location.
  • 12. Level 3: The Physical Environment Domain  For people to be able to participate in a physically active lifestyle, good urban planning is required.  This includes good planning of open spaces for games, dog parks, jogging/walking and cycling paths which are safe, practical and have good lighting  People need easy access and safety
  • 13. Level 4: The Policy Domain  Policy is defined as an authoritative decision made by a local, state or federal government body.  This domain refers to the policies, laws and regulations by which we live.  These policies, laws and regulations effect our ability to live a healthy life  Environmental change is included in this domain
  • 14. Level 4: The Policy Domain  Policies of schools and workplaces that encourage activity are important in developing a healthy workforce and nation  Government policy and funding can do the following things:  Create physical and natural environmental change  Create jobs through skills and training  Funding for sports grounds and clubs  Change taxes for sports clubs