Subjective measures
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Subjective measures Subjective measures Presentation Transcript

  • Measurement of Physical Activity Subjective Measures
  • We also measure PA levels to: • Evaluate current guidelines and trends S • Set recommended levels of physical activity • Investigate the relationship between physical activity and health conditions • Allow research to be conducted on large numbers of people, allowing us to generalise about a wider population.
  • Reactivity Reactivity is a phenomenon that occurs when individuals alter their performance or behavior due to the awareness that they are being observed Example: Direct observation in a PE class (SOFIT)
  • Validity In terms of assessment, validity refers to the extent to which a test can allow accurate conclusions Example: Does walking 10,000 steps a day equate to meeting the national physical activity guidelines for adults? http://www.10000steps.org.au/
  • So??? A tests validity (accuracy and correct representation of the data) is highly dependent on the reactivity of test measure.
  • Social-desirability bias • Social desirability bias is the tendency of respondents to answer questions in a manner that will be viewed favorably by others. • It can take the form of over-reporting "good behavior" or under-reporting "bad," or undesirable behavior.
  • Subjective Measures Depend on our perceptions (what we think/feel/value) The are predominantly used for measurement of populations
  • Measure of Assessment Subjective Objective Self report (diaries/logs) Heart-rate telemetry Recall (surveys (SAPAC), questionnaires (GPAQ, IPAQ), proxy-reports) Pedometers Accelerometers Direct Observation (SOFIT, SOPLAY, BEACHES)
  • Self Report Generally come in the form of a physical activity diary or log They record individual activities an person performs in a day They provide context, patterns of behavior, intensity and duration
  • Self Report Advantages Disadvantages Suitable for small groups or individuals Heavy subject burden (entries completed throughout the day) Usually easy to complete Unreliable due to potential misinterpretation or inaccurate recording. Able to provide detailed information on context of an activity (eg. Location, other participants, subjects feelings)
  • Recall Surveys Include the IPAQ and SAPAC Less likely to influence behaviour and require less effort compared to diaries/logs 5 – 15 minutes to complete (generally) Provide basic data to assess the PA patterns in large populations
  • Recall Advantages Inexpensive Large sample size (measures large populations) Usually easy to complete Able to collect a range of data (qualitative and quantitative) Disadvantages Unreliable due to potential misinterpretation of questions Potential subjectivity or bias (eg. Subjects may provide ‘socially desirable’ responses’
  • Proxy Report Either a diary/log or survey that is completed on behalf of a respondent Generally it will be a parent of a child or a representative of an elderly person “submitted by proxy” Generally used when the respondent is not cognitively capably of understanding or remembering