Information Processing
Learning processes: decision making mechanism and output
Friday, 6 September 2013
Decision making mechanism
Once the brain has gathered and interpreted information from the environment, it
undertakes the ...
Effector Mechanism
The effector mechanism is responsible for organising, initiating
and controlling the motor program. It ...
Reaction Time
The time it takes for perceptual, decision making and effector mechanisms to complete
their tasks is called ...
Reaction Time
Output
Friday, 6 September 2013
Types of reaction time
There are two types of reaction time:
simple reaction time
choice reaction time
Friday, 6 September...
Simple reaction time
Simple reaction time is where there is only one appropriate response to the stimulus
provided. As a r...
Choice reaction time
Choice reaction time is slower as there are several stimuli, with
several appropriate responses. With...
Influences on your reaction time
There are many factors that influence reaction time between individuals. These include;
a...
Age
Your reaction time is at its fastest when you are aged 19-30
years, then it increases (you react slowly).
Friday, 6 Se...
Gender
For psychological reasons, males generally have faster reactions
that women, although reaction times vary between p...
Number of choices
Reaction time is fastest if there is one stimulus and just one
response to it (simple reaction time)
Fri...
Warning signals
If a signal precedes the actual sensory cue, reaction time will be
reduced.
The yellow ‘caution’ traffic l...
Intensity of the stimulus or cue
Signals that are larger and brighter are easier to detect. Likewise
cues that are more in...
Probability of the signal occuring
If you know that a cue is about to occur, you can be ready to
respond. You can anticipa...
Psychological refractory period
The psychological refractory period is the delay in processing
successive cues while the f...
Stimulus-response capability
Stimulus-response capability is the degree of cohesion or relevance between the stimulus
pres...
Test your understanding
What is the effector mechanism and what is its role in decision making?
Outline the relationship b...
Apply your understanding
What are three influences on reaction time? Explain each one.
Faking or baulking in sport is a su...
Test your reaction time
http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/sleep/sheep/
reaction_version5.swf
http://www.freebrainageg...
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Info processing 4

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Info processing 4

  1. 1. Information Processing Learning processes: decision making mechanism and output Friday, 6 September 2013
  2. 2. Decision making mechanism Once the brain has gathered and interpreted information from the environment, it undertakes the final stage of processing information. The decision making mechanism constructs a plan of action (a detailed set of instructions called a motor program) that will result in an appropriate physical response. The brain can recall the motor program form the long-term memory once the decision making decides to use that program to complete the desired physical response. The brain compares information in the decision making mechanism (located in the short- term memory) to stored information previously gathered from similar situations. Thus the use of long-term memory to compare and contrast cues allows the performer to produce the most effective response. Friday, 6 September 2013
  3. 3. Effector Mechanism The effector mechanism is responsible for organising, initiating and controlling the motor program. It sends the appropriate instructions to the nerves and muscles to allow the designated movement to take place (output). Output Friday, 6 September 2013
  4. 4. Reaction Time The time it takes for perceptual, decision making and effector mechanisms to complete their tasks is called your reaction time. Reaction time is a measure of processing time - the time from presentation of a signal to the initiation of a response movement. You can only produce movement after detecting, interpreting and processing all information. The muscles carry out the motor program selected by the decision making mechanism in accordance with instructions from the effector mechanism. The total time to complete the movement is called movement time. Reaction time and movement time are the athlete’s total response time. Output Friday, 6 September 2013
  5. 5. Reaction Time Output Friday, 6 September 2013
  6. 6. Types of reaction time There are two types of reaction time: simple reaction time choice reaction time Friday, 6 September 2013
  7. 7. Simple reaction time Simple reaction time is where there is only one appropriate response to the stimulus provided. As a result of requiring only one specific response. Simple reaction is quicker. eg: when the gun sounds at the beginning of a 100m sprint, the athlete must start to run. The average simple reaction time for adults is 0.2 seconds. Friday, 6 September 2013
  8. 8. Choice reaction time Choice reaction time is slower as there are several stimuli, with several appropriate responses. With more information to be processed before selecting the appropriate motor program, the processing or reaction time will be slower. Friday, 6 September 2013
  9. 9. Influences on your reaction time There are many factors that influence reaction time between individuals. These include; age gender intensity of the stimulus or cue number of choice warning signals probability of the signal occurring psychological refractory period stimulus-response compatibility Friday, 6 September 2013
  10. 10. Age Your reaction time is at its fastest when you are aged 19-30 years, then it increases (you react slowly). Friday, 6 September 2013
  11. 11. Gender For psychological reasons, males generally have faster reactions that women, although reaction times vary between people of the same age and gender. Friday, 6 September 2013
  12. 12. Number of choices Reaction time is fastest if there is one stimulus and just one response to it (simple reaction time) Friday, 6 September 2013
  13. 13. Warning signals If a signal precedes the actual sensory cue, reaction time will be reduced. The yellow ‘caution’ traffic light precedes the red ‘stop’ light. To let you know that the red light is about to shine and that you have to stop the car. Friday, 6 September 2013
  14. 14. Intensity of the stimulus or cue Signals that are larger and brighter are easier to detect. Likewise cues that are more intense are processed faster, reducing reaction time. Friday, 6 September 2013
  15. 15. Probability of the signal occuring If you know that a cue is about to occur, you can be ready to respond. You can anticipate the arrival of the cue and therefore reduce your reaction time. Friday, 6 September 2013
  16. 16. Psychological refractory period The psychological refractory period is the delay in processing successive cues while the first cue is being processed. The initiation of a response to successive cues is delayed. Many performers use the psychological refractory period to their advantage by presenting successive cues such as fakes and baulks to slow the response of their opponents. Friday, 6 September 2013
  17. 17. Stimulus-response capability Stimulus-response capability is the degree of cohesion or relevance between the stimulus presented and the response performed. If the compatibility is high, the response will seem to match or be appropriate to the stimulus or cue. However, if the compatibility is not high, the response will be slower. eg: many competitive swimmers train for race starts with their coaches’ voice commands. However, state, national and international competitions use the ‘beep’. Some swimmers may therefore react more slowly to the beep because they are not use to it. The beep does not provide the usual compatibility between the stimulus and the response. Friday, 6 September 2013
  18. 18. Test your understanding What is the effector mechanism and what is its role in decision making? Outline the relationship between reaction time, movement time and response time. Define the term simple reaction time. Define the term choice reaction time. List the eight factors that can influence reaction time. Define the term psychological refractory period. Define the term stimulus-response compatibility. Friday, 6 September 2013
  19. 19. Apply your understanding What are three influences on reaction time? Explain each one. Faking or baulking in sport is a successful tactical ploy because it gives a player added time to play a shot, shoot or pass. a) what major ‘skill acquisition’ principle comes into play during a fake? b) explain why an opponent’s response is delayed when confronted with a fake. Discuss sports where multiple stimuli will influence performance Examine sporting situations that exemplify the psychological refractory period. Examine sporting situations that help you understand stimulus-response compatibility. Friday, 6 September 2013
  20. 20. Test your reaction time http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/sleep/sheep/ reaction_version5.swf http://www.freebrainagegames.com/games/ reactions_pounce.php Friday, 6 September 2013

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