Info processing 3 pdf


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Info processing 3 pdf

  1. 1. Information Processing Learning processes: transfer of learning through memory Thursday, 5 September 2013
  2. 2. Key Concept People process and learn information through four mechanisms. This section examines the role of memory as part of the information processing system. Thursday, 5 September 2013
  3. 3. The role of memory Once the brain has gathered relevant information, the ability to remember cues becomes more important for processing that information. Performers can remember cues from the environment, but the information is lost within 1 second and replaced by new information. This short-term sensory store links perception and memory. Selective attention allows you to remember relevant information beyond the 1 second limit. It helps transfer information from your short-term sensory store to your short-term memory, which is a less temporary storage facility. Thursday, 5 September 2013
  4. 4. The role of memory Short-term memory has a limited capacity to store information: it can handle approximately 7 items. This information can be retained for around 60 seconds, but without further consideration it can also be lost. Short-term memory is important for the learner because it allows coaching information to be remembered and compared to the performance of a skill. The learner can make corrections and modifications, improving their performance. The following factors affect short-term memory: chunking or coding distractions (noise) meaningfulness rehearsal Thursday, 5 September 2013
  5. 5. The role of memory Thursday, 5 September 2013
  6. 6. Chunking or Coding Chunking or coding is a way if increasing the amount of information that the brain can retain. You can group (or recode) information into meaningful categories (or chunks) to increase the capacity of short-term memory. Memorising a telephone number is an example. A performer may group of chunk motor information in a similar way. Instead of remembering all the individual subroutines for a tennis forehand, they may chunk the information into groups. Thursday, 5 September 2013
  7. 7. Distractions (noise) Just as noise distracts you when you attempt to attend selectively to relevant cues from the environment, noise can also interfere with your ability to concentrate on sensory information and transfer it to your short-term memory Thursday, 5 September 2013
  8. 8. Meaningfulness You can more easily transfer information to your short-term memory if the information has meaning for you and if you believe it is relevant to your task. Your level of interest is also associated with your ability to remember information. It is easier to understand and learn from instructions that are appropriate to your age and level of development. example: when teaching a beginner backstroke, the coach may demonstrate the technique and then explain it by saying that it is like reaching up for an apple and then putting it in your pocket. This is far more relevant and easier to understand than trying ti explain the movement using technical biomechanics terminology. Thursday, 5 September 2013
  9. 9. Rehearsal You must rehearse information for it to be transferred into short-term memory. It is vital that the rehearsal occurs as soon as possible following the presentation of the cue. Practising a physical skill not only allows you to better process and remember motor information, but it also allows you to correct and refine your performance of that skill. Thursday, 5 September 2013
  10. 10. Long-term memory The short-term memory is like selective attention that it filters out the irrelevant cues and only processes and transfers the most appropriate and relevant cues. A third memory storage facility with an unlimited capacity permanently stores this information for future use. This facility is called the long term-memory. Again rehearsal is needed for information transfer to take place. Once in the long-term memory, the brain can retrieve the information when necessary. Thursday, 5 September 2013
  11. 11. Test your understanding What is the role of short-term sensory store? How long doe the short-term sensory store last? Define the term short-term memory. How long does it last? Through what mechanisms does information have to pass to move from short-term memory to long-term memory? Define the term chunking. Thursday, 5 September 2013
  12. 12. Apply your understanding Give some everyday examples of the short-term sensory store. Give some everyday examples of short-term memory. For three sports, give examples where chunking will improve learning and performance. Provide some examples where coaches use more meaningful instructions to allow young learners to acquire skills more quickly. List some times when your long-term memory of previous sporting experiences allowed you to learn new skills more easily. Thursday, 5 September 2013