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Cardiovascular system

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  • 1. Cardiorespiratory System Year 10 PE
  • 2. Made up of…. • The circulatory system • Heart, blood and vessels
  • 3. Functions of the heart, blood and vessels • Circulate blood to all parts of the body • Transport water, oxygen and nutrients to cells • Remove wastes, including carbon dioxide, from cells • Maintain body temperature
  • 4. The heart • Composed of four chambers • Two Atria (upper chambers) & two Ventricles (lower chambers). • The Atria receive blood from the body (and lungs), the ventricles pump blood back out into the body.
  • 5. The heart • Label the various structures of the heart • Color in the heart as to where there would be oxygen rich blood (red) and oxygen poor (blue) blood • Think about • How does the blood become ‘oxygen rich?’ • Where does it go after it becomes oxygen rich? • Where does it go after it ‘drops off’ its oxygen?
  • 6. The heart
  • 7. Blood Vessels • Arteries – Carry oxygen rich blood to the working muscles • Veins – Carry oxygen poor blood back to the heart • Capillaries – site of gas exchange
  • 8. Blood • Contains blood cells, fluid, minerals and gases • Each persons has approximately 4-5 L of blood • Blood is made up of • Red Blood Cells (O2 Carrying) • White Blood Cells (immune system) • Platelets (clotting cells) • Plasma (90% water, nutrient carrying) • Blood Cells (45%) • Blood Plasma (55%)
  • 9. Blood Vessels • Arteries – Arterioles – Capillaries – Venules – Veins. Arteries • The aorta is the largest artery in the body. The left ventricle pushes the blood into the aorta and onto the rest of the body.
  • 10. Arteries • The artery walls are elastic so they are able to expand with each heartbeat to accommodate blood. • When you take your heart rate, you are feeling the pressure of the blood being pushed into the arterial system.
  • 11. Arteries • Arteries further reduce in size to become arterioles as the network of blood vessels work their way into the depths of the body. • Bleeding from an artery can be recognised by the blood spurting out with each heart beat and by its bright red (oxygen rich) colour.
  • 12. Arteries • Coronary Artery – supplies the hearts chambers with oxygen and nutrients. • Heart attacks are often caused by a blockage of the coronary artery. • Smoking, drinking, eating fatty foods and lack of exercise contribute to coronary artery blockages.
  • 13. Capillaries • The exchange of nutrients and waste between the body and blood cells occurs in the capillaries. • Heat from cells is also absorbed into blood through the capillaries
  • 14. Capillaries • Exchange of materials is easy as capillaries are only one cell thick. • When you begin to exercise capillaries dilate to allow increased blood flow. • Other capillaries come into use through the opening of pre-capillary sphincters.
  • 15. Capillaries • A long term exercise program may increase the number of capillaries supplying blood to muscles, allowing an increased oxygen supply to muscle and removal of wastes.
  • 16. Veins • Veins carry blood back to the heart. • Veins have no pulse, blood flow is steady and constant. • The walls of veins are thin and not as elastic as artery walls.
  • 17. Veins. • The return of blood to the heart depends on contraction of skeletal muscle. • Veins are squeezed by muscle as they contract. • One way valves working against gravity and prevent backflow of blood to organs and muscles.