Arousal and performance


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Arousal and performance

  1. 1. P E U N I T 4 A O S 2 Control: Arousal and Performance
  2. 2. Arousal  The amount of readiness or activation a person experiences when faced with a task  The inverted-U graph shows the relationship between arousal and performance and also the area of optimum performance.
  3. 3. Optimum Arousal  Individual to the athlete in question, the ‘inverted U’ and ‘optimum zone’ will chance shape and area depending on the athlete in question.  Athletes need to take responsibility in controlling their arousal levels to ensure they maintain the optimum level of arousal to maintain a high level of performance.
  4. 4. Drive Theory  According to drive theory, if an athlete is appropriately skilled then it will help them to perform well if their drive to compete is aroused (i.e. they are ‘psyched-up’).
  5. 5. Arousal Reduction Techniques  Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR)  Breath Control  Biofeedback  Stress-inoculation training
  6. 6. Essendon VS St.Kilda, Rd 20, 2009  Last 5 minutes  Nick Riewoldt
  7. 7. Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR)  Popular muscle relaxation technique among athletes  Progressively tensing and relaxing major muscle groups  Method example on p.315.  Lets try it  You will need to be in savasna (lying on your back on the floor with your eyes closed)
  8. 8. Breath Control  Helps an athlete relax and refocus while preparing for the next action or part of the match  It helps athletes ‘block out’ distractions, providing a mental break for the activity
  9. 9. Biofeedback  Physically based technique used to modify physiological or autonomous body functions during training (which can be carried over into competition)  Electronic instruments are used to measure (and provide feedback on) heart rate, skin/body temperature, muscle tension, blood pressure  These measuring devises give direct readings or provide a sound relative to the intensity of the stimulus.
  10. 10. Biofeedback  Baseball pitcher  Rifle shooter
  11. 11. Stress-inoculation training (SIT)  Like when you are inoculated against the measles, stress-inoculation exposed the athlete small levels to help them adapt  Coping to the stresses comes in the form of developing  Positive thoughts  Mental Images  Self-confidence statements
  12. 12. Arousal Promotion Techniques  Elevated Breathing  Act Energetic  Positive talk and sounds (“talk it up”)  Energising imagery  Pre-competition workout
  13. 13. Elevated breathing  Similarly to breathing as an arousal reduction technique (slow deep breathing), short sharp breaths can activate the CNS to increase a state of awareness  Eg: Tennis players after losing a few games in a row
  14. 14. Act energetic  At the beginning or during a game, an athlete may feel lethargic or tired.  Physically pumping, slapping or hitting each other can help pump each other up; therefore increasing arousal levels
  15. 15. Positive self talk  Emotive words like ‘tough, aggressive, hard hitting, aggressive, dependable etc’ increase arousal levels.  Coaches will tend to use these words when addressing the team  Players can use these words to pump themselves up.  Music can also play a large role in increasing/maintaining arousal levels  EG: Pole-vaulters / high jumpers
  16. 16. Energising imagery  Involves visualising something that is uplifting to the athlete  EG: Swimmers moving sleekly through the water like a dolphin  EG: Baseballer’s literally hitting the skin off the ball and hitting it for a home run
  17. 17. Pre-competition Workout  Generally takes place about 2-hours before the match  Allows the athlete/team to become accustom to the field/environment  They then do their warm- up and practice any psychological skills in front of the crowd