Theme4part1the french in north americaPresentation Transcript
Patricia Bigler History 140 The American Colonial Empires France and England: The French in North America
Chapter 5 Canada and Iroquora 1500-1660
Indians of northeastern North America were divided into Algonquian and Iroquoian peoples.
The Iroquoian clustered around Lake Ontario and along St. Lawrence valley-to the east- or to the south in the Susquenhanna Valley.
Algonquian occupied the Atlantic seaboard form Labrador to North Carolina and along the Western and Northern margins of Iroquoia to Lake Superior.
Chapter 5- Continued
Iroquoians and Algonquians
Hunting and gathering sustained many large villages similarly along the coast from New England to North Carolina with the more southern Algonquians.
Northern Algonquians lacked horticulture and were more mobile and dispersed.
During the late 16 th century the French developed alliances with the Northern Algonquians.
The french cam e in contact with the Huron and they allied with the Northern Algonquians and the French and broke with the Five Nations (their fellow Iroquoians.
The Five Nation Iroquois were “inferior hunters and indifferent traders.”
In 1610 they got metal weapons from European suppliers (the Dutch). They became better armed than their enemies and violently disrupted the northern trade alliance.
The Fur Trade
1580 no nation controlled the fisheries. Fisherman and whalers made temporary camps on shore to obtain fresh water and firewood. This brought them into contact with the Indian hunters that wore different furs.
The mariners offered European manufactured goods in exchange for furs.
The Dutch Trade
1614- a dutch company formed a year round trading post near present day Albany. It was initially called Fort Nassau until after 1624 when it was called Fort Orange.
The Jesuits and Trade
The fur trade launched in New France but the mission system was not very compatable with the fur trade because it was run mostly by rough characters who had very little interest in religion.
The French priests said the fur traders were “moral reprobates who set vicious examples to the Indians…”
The French missionaries formed the Counter-reformation meant to reverse the growth of Protestantism. They tried to do this by “…bringing a new rigor and zeal to the Catholic institutions.”
The Jesuits became known as the “Black Robes” by the Indians
Chapter 16-French America 1650-1750
At the end of the 17 th Century the French founded a new colony in the lower Mississippi Valley named Louisiana and became the chief rival for British Colombia.
Even though the French had small numbers they claimed and affected more of the continent than any other empire did.
Worried that the French didn’t have enough people to colonize North America, the Crown increased emigration by paying for the transatlantic passages.
Most of the emigrants were poor, single young men.
Only 12% were women
Most male emigrants came either as sodiers or indentured servants usually only serving a 3 year term. Most returned to france.
Cultural values blocked Emigration, and the poor would rather stay than risk the unknown.
The French that stayed after imigrating to Canada improved their standard of living significantly.
80% lived as habitants and leased the farms of roughly 100 acres, a lot larger that the peasant plots they would have had in their homeland.
They could afford meat and white bread and kept warmer in the winter.
They could afford houses.
They had the privlage of hunting and fishing which where denied to them in France.
The crown “…abruptly ordered a withdrawl from the upper-country posts in 1696.”
Canadian officials and merchants protested this because they profited from the fur trade and were worriede that the British traders would take over.
The Indians would be faced with destitution and huger if they did not have access to European goods.
Chief Skiagunsta in 1753 said “…Every necessary Thing in Life we must have from the white people.”
1720’s the French posts located on the Great lakes sold at below market value so the Indians would not trade with the British
This showed the dependence of the French on the Indians was actually greater than the Indians dependence on the French.