Chapter 4-The establishment of an American State
February 28, 1848 U.S and Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
California as an American territory would have remained part of the federal government, but congress did not want to grant California territorial status.
Northern states wanted California to be free of slavery while southern states wanted at least part of California to be open to slavery.
Unable to come to a compromise there were no territorial provisions made by congress—so the military provided civil administration and Mexican California provided a workable system of local law under its “Alcade” system of governance.
Religion was not absent, it helped to provide a way for the newly arrived settlers to organize themselves.
1851-Jesuit missionaries founded a college at Mission Santa Clara.
1852-Methoddists opened California Wesleyan College in San Jose
1855-Jesuits opened a second college.
1862- in San Fransisco a state school for the training of teachers was established.
1854 the first cell block at San Quentin was ready for occupancy.
Agrigulture employed more people than the gold rush in 1869, and became the leading element of the California economy by 1879
Mid 1860s- the construction of a transcontinental railroad had begun. More than 30,000 miles of track linked the cities of the East and Midwest.
Chapter 8-Making it Happen Labor through the Great Depression
Because California was more diversified with agriculture, industry, entertainment and tourists, the Great Depression came later to California and didn’t hit as hard as other parts of the country. But it did hit California by the early 1930’s and the instability of the agricultural workforce contributed to the social strife.
1870’s- a nationwide depression destroyed the local economy. San Francisco had many angry unemployed railroad construction workers.
General strike of 1901- led to the formation of the Union Labor Party in San Francisco.
October 1, 1910 the headquarters of the Times was bombed, killing 20 employees and injuring 17.
A private detective was hired by Mayor George Alexander who accused three men: Ortie McManigal (a radical), James McNamara, and his brother John. Ultimately they confessed, and served life sentences for their crimes.
1912- San Diego faced a dock strike lead by the Industrial Workers of the World.
April 30, 1919- The criminal Syndicalism Act passed, making it a felony to advocate or in any other way to “…promulgate violence as a means of accomplishing a charge in industrial ownership or control or effecting any political changes.”
Californiahad more than 300,000 agricultural workers during the Great Depression.
By the middle of 1934 there were 142 workers for every 100 agricultural jobs.
Wages dropped by more than 50%.
August 1931- the CAWIU organized a strike of more than 2,000 cannery workers in the Santa Clara Valley.
Cotton pickers strike of 1933 , became one of the larges single agricultural stikes in the history of the nation.
10,000 strikers across a five hundred mile area.
300 strikers were arrested in October.
Local government had cooperation with the growers, and the sheriff even encouraged growers to pour castor oil down the throat of any organizer that came onto their rance.
The sheriff off Kern County deputized more than three hundred growers.
October 10, 1933 a caravan of 40 armed vigilantes drove into the town Pixley they aproached with weapons drawn. Two strikers were killed and 8 others were wounded.
July 5, 1934 “bloody Thursday”- Battle atop Rincon Hill. Two dead, 30 suffered gunshot wounds, and 43 were gassed, clubbed or hit with projectiles. A general strike on July 15, 1934 was the response, which shut down most of the city.