9. modern latin america power pointPresentation Transcript
9. Modern Latin America Patricia Bigler History 141
Latin America’s Wars of the 19 th Century
The Race War
The ideology of Independence
The controversy of seperation versus union
Interventions caused by capitalism
Haitian War For Independence
Began as a struggle between less privileged people of mixed blood and the privileged white planters.
Became an “all-out race war” when the blacks dominated.
During the early years some wealthy plantation owners escaped with their slaves furthering the assumption that race was the cause of conflict.
Boundary Disputes and Religious Wars
Boundaries were defined poorly and this caused wars.
The Spanish King had inadequate knowledge of Geography-this gave almost every post-independence Spanish-speaking nation basis to claim land that was also claimed by their neighbor.
Boundaries were complex because the continent had been reorganized in 1776
Boundary wars began immediately after the wars of independence and continued all throughtout the 19 th century.
In Latin American wars, religion played a very important role.
Rafael Carrera’s army was a product of the Roman Catholic Church.
During the interclass struggles, religion was a prime motivator.
Miguel Hidalgo, and Jose Morelos are examples of clerics “who took up the saber..” (they led the War for Independence in Mexico.)
Ideology of Independence
Political, economic, and social frustrations.
Colonial Latin America was a class system- gave more privileges to the Europeans and lesser to the American-born whites and repressed all the others.
Criollos- Frustration with the lack of political opportunities.
The majority of the political military went to beople born in Spain called peninsulares or godos.
Ideology of Independence
Events in North America and Europe were catalysts for independce. The American Revolution (which had the support of Spain) and the French revolution provided a model and influences some of the privileged; two of the most important being Miguel Hidalgo of Mexico and Simon Bolivar of New Granada.
The economic system also favored the peninsulares.
Mercantilism (economic system that held that the colonies existed for the benefit of the motherland), cut off economic development in the New World.
Trade was exclusive , conducted by the Europeans by European Ships.
The mestizos, Indians, and blacks were treated poorly- they were taxed heavily.
The Second World-Parag Khanna
Mexico: The Umbilical Cord
On January 1, 1994 the North American Free Trade Agreement was supposed to have propeled Mexico into the First world- But the Zapista National Liberation Army “…Began an all-out insurgency to draw attention to the plight of marginalized farmers, seizing four southern municipalities and assassinating two top leaders of the governing PRI party.”
President Carlos Salinas unleashed a crackdown against the zapistas and their supporters.
The fences seperating Mexico from the U.S. is not for security-”nobody is going to invade Mexico” the real crisis is globalization.
Wide income gaps
Drug and human trafficking.
Modernization is limited in Mexico
The rural-urban split in Mexico’s politics show there are actually four Mexicos:
Northern region on the American border- Dollars and pesos are interchangeable.
Central Mexico- The capital and breadbasket
The destitute isthmus region- indigenous and beautiful
“ New Maya” region of the Yucatan- overwhelmingly poor
“ Coyotes” continue to traffic illegal immigrants to the united states.
The majority of drugs that are consumed in the United States are produced in Colombia and largely trafficked through Mexico.
Because of this the border towns like Nuevo Laredo turn into places full of robbery, kidnapping and gang warfare.
Mexican immigrants take the jobs in restaurants and construction that Americans don’t want working long hours for minimal pay.
They also put a strain on the underfunded health and education systems
“ Mexicans are the only immigrant group with a historical claim to U.S. territory…”
Spanish is quickly becoming Americas second language in regions with large hispanic populations: California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas.
Elderly Americans relocate to Mexico for the affordable health care, while Mexican immigrants are taking advantage of American social services at the taxpayers expense.