9. Modern Latin America Patricia Bigler History 141
Latin America’s Wars of the 19 th  Century <ul><li>The Race War </li></ul><ul><li>The ideology of Independence </li></ul><...
Race War <ul><li>Haitian War For Independence </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1791-1803 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bega...
Boundary Disputes and Religious Wars <ul><li>Boundary Disputes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boundaries were defined poorly an...
Ideology of Independence <ul><li>Political, economic, and social frustrations. </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial Latin America wa...
Ideology of Independence <ul><li>Events in North America and Europe were catalysts for independce. The American Revolution...
The Second World-Parag Khanna <ul><li>Mexico: The Umbilical Cord </li></ul><ul><li>On January 1, 1994 the North American F...
Mexico <ul><li>The fences seperating Mexico from the U.S. is not for security-”nobody is going to invade Mexico” the real ...
Mexico <ul><li>The rural-urban split in Mexico’s politics show there are actually four Mexicos: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>...
Mexico <ul><li>“ Coyotes” continue to traffic illegal immigrants to the united states. </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of d...
Mexico <ul><li>“  Mexicans are the only immigrant group with a historical claim to U.S. territory…” </li></ul><ul><li>Span...
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9. modern latin america power point

  1. 1. 9. Modern Latin America Patricia Bigler History 141
  2. 2. Latin America’s Wars of the 19 th Century <ul><li>The Race War </li></ul><ul><li>The ideology of Independence </li></ul><ul><li>The controversy of seperation versus union </li></ul><ul><li>Caudilloism </li></ul><ul><li>Resource wars </li></ul><ul><li>Territorial conquests </li></ul><ul><li>Intraclass struggles </li></ul><ul><li>Interventions caused by capitalism </li></ul><ul><li>Religious wars </li></ul>
  3. 3. Race War <ul><li>Haitian War For Independence </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1791-1803 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Began as a struggle between less privileged people of mixed blood and the privileged white planters. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Became an “all-out race war” when the blacks dominated. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>During the early years some wealthy plantation owners escaped with their slaves furthering the assumption that race was the cause of conflict. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Boundary Disputes and Religious Wars <ul><li>Boundary Disputes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boundaries were defined poorly and this caused wars. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Spanish King had inadequate knowledge of Geography-this gave almost every post-independence Spanish-speaking nation basis to claim land that was also claimed by their neighbor. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boundaries were complex because the continent had been reorganized in 1776 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boundary wars began immediately after the wars of independence and continued all throughtout the 19 th century. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Religious Wars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Latin American wars, religion played a very important role. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rafael Carrera’s army was a product of the Roman Catholic Church. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During the interclass struggles, religion was a prime motivator. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Miguel Hidalgo, and Jose Morelos are examples of clerics “who took up the saber..” (they led the War for Independence in Mexico.) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Ideology of Independence <ul><li>Political, economic, and social frustrations. </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial Latin America was a class system- gave more privileges to the Europeans and lesser to the American-born whites and repressed all the others. </li></ul><ul><li>Criollos- Frustration with the lack of political opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of the political military went to beople born in Spain called peninsulares or godos. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Ideology of Independence <ul><li>Events in North America and Europe were catalysts for independce. The American Revolution (which had the support of Spain) and the French revolution provided a model and influences some of the privileged; two of the most important being Miguel Hidalgo of Mexico and Simon Bolivar of New Granada. </li></ul><ul><li>The economic system also favored the peninsulares. </li></ul><ul><li>Mercantilism (economic system that held that the colonies existed for the benefit of the motherland), cut off economic development in the New World. </li></ul><ul><li>Trade was exclusive , conducted by the Europeans by European Ships. </li></ul><ul><li>The mestizos, Indians, and blacks were treated poorly- they were taxed heavily. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Second World-Parag Khanna <ul><li>Mexico: The Umbilical Cord </li></ul><ul><li>On January 1, 1994 the North American Free Trade Agreement was supposed to have propeled Mexico into the First world- But the Zapista National Liberation Army “…Began an all-out insurgency to draw attention to the plight of marginalized farmers, seizing four southern municipalities and assassinating two top leaders of the governing PRI party.” </li></ul><ul><li>President Carlos Salinas unleashed a crackdown against the zapistas and their supporters. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Mexico <ul><li>The fences seperating Mexico from the U.S. is not for security-”nobody is going to invade Mexico” the real crisis is globalization. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>International competition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wide income gaps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drug and human trafficking. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Modernization is limited in Mexico </li></ul>
  9. 9. Mexico <ul><li>The rural-urban split in Mexico’s politics show there are actually four Mexicos: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Northern region on the American border- Dollars and pesos are interchangeable. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Central Mexico- The capital and breadbasket </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The destitute isthmus region- indigenous and beautiful </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ New Maya” region of the Yucatan- overwhelmingly poor </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Mexico <ul><li>“ Coyotes” continue to traffic illegal immigrants to the united states. </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of drugs that are consumed in the United States are produced in Colombia and largely trafficked through Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of this the border towns like Nuevo Laredo turn into places full of robbery, kidnapping and gang warfare. </li></ul><ul><li>Mexican immigrants take the jobs in restaurants and construction that Americans don’t want working long hours for minimal pay. </li></ul><ul><li>They also put a strain on the underfunded health and education systems </li></ul>
  11. 11. Mexico <ul><li>“ Mexicans are the only immigrant group with a historical claim to U.S. territory…” </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish is quickly becoming Americas second language in regions with large hispanic populations: California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. </li></ul><ul><li>Elderly Americans relocate to Mexico for the affordable health care, while Mexican immigrants are taking advantage of American social services at the taxpayers expense. </li></ul>

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