BUSINESS
COMMUNICATION
LECTURE 7
THE WRITING PROCESS
By Ms. Glynnis
The writing process has 3
parts :
1. Pre-writing
2. Writing
3. Revising
1. Pre-writing
 Analyzing
 Analyzed your audience
 analyzed purpose of writing
 Anticipating
 how audience will react...
2. writing
 researching
 investigate your customer or
audience
Organizing
 how you want your letter
Composing
 save ...
3. Revising
 revising
 check clarity, conciseness,
tone and readability
Proofreading
 ensure correct spelling,
grammar...
SELECTING THE BEST CHANNEL
 Face to face conversation
 Telephone call
 Voicemail messages
 Fax
 Email
 Face to face ...
Choosing the best channel
depends on some of the following
factors :
 importance of the message
 Amount and speed of the...
In preparing business messages and oral
presentations, you’ll find that your writing
need to be :
 Audience – oriented
 ...
IMPORTANCE OF PROOFREADING
 Proofreading before a document is
completed is generally a waste of
time.
 What to watch for...
 How to proofread routine documents
 needs a light proofreading
 How to proofread complex documents
 Techniques :
• pr...
ESTABLISHING CREDABILITY AND
REVIEWING THE WRITING
1. EFFECTIVE SENTENCES
 Sentence must have subject and make sense
 Cl...
2. Emphasis
 emphasize an idea mechanically by
using underlining, italics, boldface,
font changes, all caps, dashes and
t...
3. Active and passive voice
 active –voice sentences are
preferred because the subject is
the doer of the action.
 altho...
4. Parallelism
 balanced wording helps the reader
anticipate and comprehend your
meaning
 all items in the list should b...
5. unity
united sentences contain only related
ideas.
6. Zigzag writing
 sentences often should be broken into
two sente...
9. Paragraph coherence
 three ways to create paragraph
coherence are :
 repetition of key ideas
 use of pronouns
 use ...
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Business communication 7

  1. 1. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION LECTURE 7 THE WRITING PROCESS By Ms. Glynnis
  2. 2. The writing process has 3 parts : 1. Pre-writing 2. Writing 3. Revising
  3. 3. 1. Pre-writing  Analyzing  Analyzed your audience  analyzed purpose of writing  Anticipating  how audience will react to your message  Adapting  try to think of the right words and right tone to win approval
  4. 4. 2. writing  researching  investigate your customer or audience Organizing  how you want your letter Composing  save your writing in your computer
  5. 5. 3. Revising  revising  check clarity, conciseness, tone and readability Proofreading  ensure correct spelling, grammar, punctuation and format. Evaluating  decide whether it accomplishes your goal
  6. 6. SELECTING THE BEST CHANNEL  Face to face conversation  Telephone call  Voicemail messages  Fax  Email  Face to face group meeting  Video or teleconference  Memo  Letter  Report or proposal
  7. 7. Choosing the best channel depends on some of the following factors :  importance of the message  Amount and speed of the feedback required  Necessity of a permanent record  Cost of the channel  Degree of formality desired
  8. 8. In preparing business messages and oral presentations, you’ll find that your writing need to be :  Audience – oriented  concentrate on looking at a problem from the receiver’s perspective instead of seeing fron your own.  Purposeful  to solve problem and convey information  Economical  try to present ideas clearly but concisely.  length is not rewarded
  9. 9. IMPORTANCE OF PROOFREADING  Proofreading before a document is completed is generally a waste of time.  What to watch for in proofreading :  spelling  Grammar  Punctuation  Names  Numbers  format
  10. 10.  How to proofread routine documents  needs a light proofreading  How to proofread complex documents  Techniques : • print a copy, double spaced • allow adequate time to proofread carefully • Be prepared to find errors • read message at least twice • reduce your reading speed • use standard proofreading marks to indicate changes
  11. 11. ESTABLISHING CREDABILITY AND REVIEWING THE WRITING 1. EFFECTIVE SENTENCES  Sentence must have subject and make sense  Clauses have subject and verbs, but phrases do not.  Independent clauses may stand alone but dependent could not.  Fragment are broken-off parts of sentences and should not be punctuated as sentences.  When two independent clauses are joined by a comma without conjunction, a comma splice result.  Sentences with 20 or fewer words have the most impact.
  12. 12. 2. Emphasis  emphasize an idea mechanically by using underlining, italics, boldface, font changes, all caps, dashes and tabulations.  emphasize ideas stylistically by using vivid words, labeling the main idea, and positioning the main idea strategically.  deemphasize ideas by using general words and placing the idea in dependent clauses.
  13. 13. 3. Active and passive voice  active –voice sentences are preferred because the subject is the doer of the action.  although active-voice verbs are preferred, passive-voice verbs perform useful function.
  14. 14. 4. Parallelism  balanced wording helps the reader anticipate and comprehend your meaning  all items in the list should be expressed in balanced constructions.
  15. 15. 5. unity united sentences contain only related ideas. 6. Zigzag writing  sentences often should be broken into two sentences 7. Mixed constructions  mixed grammatical constructions confuse readers 8. Dangling and misplaced modifiers  modifiers must be close to the words they describe or limit
  16. 16. 9. Paragraph coherence  three ways to create paragraph coherence are :  repetition of key ideas  use of pronouns  use of transiti  onal expressions  used wisely, transitional expressions guide readers smoothly from idea to idea the most readable paragraphs contain eight or fewer printed lines.
  1. ¿Le ha llamado la atención una diapositiva en particular?

    Recortar diapositivas es una manera útil de recopilar información importante para consultarla más tarde.

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