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parasitology lab notes

parasitology lab notes






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    parasitology lab notes parasitology lab notes Presentation Transcript

    • Lab 9: TICKS!!!
    • General Tick Anatomy
      • Ticks have small, compressed, leathery bodies
      • 2 types of ticks –
        • Aragasid: soft ticks – no scutum
        • Ixodid: hard ticks – have scutum
      • Mouthparts cannot be seen when viewed dorsally
      • 8 legs, claws on end
      • Head is called capitulum – extends out in hard ticks but not in soft
      • In male Ixodid ticks, scutum covers the entire dorsal surface. In females, scutum is smaller & is almost completely obscured during engorgement
      Ixodid Tick Aragasid Tick
    • General Tick Anatomy: Part 2
      • Mouthparts:
        • 2 palps (think of them like lips) – move out of the way while feeding and don’t penetrate host’s skin
        • 2 chelicerae – cuts through host’s skin
        • 1 barbed, needle-like hypostome – used to suck blood
      • Larvae have only 6 legs
      • Nymphs have 8 legs, but lack a genital pore
      Larva Nymph
    • General Tick Lifecycle
      • Ticks copulate
      • Female engorges on blood & drops to ground
      • Female lays thousands of eggs & dies
      • Eggs hatch & larvae crawl onto vegetation, climb onto passing animals, MUST FEED ON BLOOD TO MOLT
      • Molt into nymphs, MUST FEED ON BLOOD TO MOLT
      • Adults crawl onto vegetation & climb onto passing animals
      • Can have 1, 2 or 3 hosts
      • Activities are limited during winter months
      • Ticks avoid temperature extremes
    • Importance of Studying Ticks
      • Ticks are voracious blood feeders – can cause anemia, fever, splenomegaly
      • Ticks can transmit many different disease causing bacteria (esp. rickettsial ), viruses & fungi
      • Female ticks secrete toxins in salivary glands that can induce temporary paralysis
      Female hard tick Laying eggs Engorged female hard tick
    • Otobius megnini : Spinous Ear Tick
      • 1 host soft tick
      • Can cause deep ulcerations in the ear – very irritating!
      • Will see animal shaking head frequently, can see with an otoscope
      • Infested pinna will droop – HALLMARK SIGN!!!
      • Usually occur in large numbers
      • Can see in dogs & cats, but also frequently in large animals (horses, cattle, sheep, goats)
      • Only larvae & nymphs take blood meals – adults are free living in environment
      • Prefer dry protected areas
      • Usually associated with Southwest US
    • Argas persicus : Fowl Tick
      • Soft tick of fowl
      • Economic pests! Cause farmers to lose a lot of money
      • Occurs in large numbers, stresses chickens leading to low egg production
      • Can also induce anemia
      • Live in cracks & crevices of wood – contaminated bedding
    • Rhipicephalus sanguineus : Brown Dog Tick
      • Hard tick
      • Very common in this area
      • Intermediate host for Babesia canis , Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma
      • Found both indoor & outdoor
      • Severe infestation can lead to heavy blood losses, severe anemia
      • Inornate brown color, head looks hexagonal
      Engorged female Female Male Nymph
    • Dermacentor variabilis : American Dog Tick
      • Also known as Wood Tick
      • Common in this area
      • Lives in grassy areas
      • Vector for Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Tularemia, Cytauxzoon felis
      • Can cause tick paralysis
      • Identified by rectangular shaped capitulum, females have white markings on dorsal shield, males can have markings all over
    • Amblyoma americanum : Lone Star Tick
      • Found mostly in SE US – west to Texas
      • Some pockets in Jersey, Fire Island, NY & Prudence Island, RI
      • Vector for Tularemia, RMSF, Ehrlichiosis
      • Can produce anemia with heavy burden
      • Females identified by white spot on apex of scutum, males can have white specks all over
      Female Male Nymph
    • Amblyomma maculatum : Gulf Coast Tick
      • Don’t see around here – but potential to carry home from vacation
      • Seen most along Gulf Coast (Florida, Alabama, Louisiana)
      • Lives in ear canals of horses, sheep, dogs & people
      • Causes ulcerations in ear – can lead to hematomas
      • Ulcerations can attract flies & maggots
      • Infested pinna will droop – HALLMARK SIGN!!!
      • Causes severe bites w/ tick paralysis possible, severe swelling
      • Have long palps, silvery markings on scutum
    • Boophilus annulatus: Texas Cattle Tick
      • Eradicated from US in 1940s – still prevalent in Mexico
      • Because of eradication & potential for disease – must be reported immediately if seen
      • Vector for Babesia bovis/bigemina and Anaplasma marginale
      • Can cause severe anemia
      • Other signs incl. restlessness, rubbing/licking/biting/scratching at self
      • Looks similar to Rhipicephalus but has ridged palps
    • Ixodes scapularis : Deer Tick
      • Also known as Black Legged Tick
      • Only tick in this area that transmits Borrelia burgdorferi – bacterial cause of Lyme Disease
      • Only females & nymphs will transmit Lyme Disease – tick must be attached for at least 48hrs before the bacteria will transfer (males only feed for ~ 24hrs)
      • CS of Lyme Disease – weakness, lethargy, sudden lameness, swelling of joints, fever, depression, reluctance to move
    • Proper Tick Removal
      • Use forceps/tweezers to grasp the tick at the base (head) as close to the skin as possible
      • Push the skin away from the head and pull the tick straight out of the animal
      • Clean the area with soap & water immediately after removal
      • Save the tick if possible to help identify & diagnose if illness occurs
      • DON’T grasp the body of the tick, it will break away & leave the head still embedded in skin
      • DON’T burn the tick with a match
      • DON’T crush the tick while it is still embedded
      • DON’T use petroleum jelly or rubbing alcohol on the tick
    • For more cool information check out: http://science.howstuffworks.com/tick.htm/printable